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Article

Optimization of Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Corn Husks

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University, 00184 Rome, Italy
2
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Cartagena, Cartagena 130015, Colombia
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Av. Gran Colombia No. 12E-96, Cúcuta 540003, Colombia
4
Department of Civil, Environmental, Building Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Bari, 70125 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110804
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Separation and Extraction Processes)
Corn husks are an important byproduct of the corn processing industry. Although they are a rich source of bioactive compounds, especially flavonoids, corn husks are usually disposed of or used as animal feed. In this paper, we investigate their recovery by an enzyme-assisted extraction process consisting of a pretreatment of the plant material with cellulase followed by solvent extraction with aqueous ethanol. A four-factor, three-level Box–Behnken design combined with the response surface methodology was used to optimize the enzyme dosage (0.3–0.5 g/100 g), incubation time (1.5–2.5 h), liquid-to-solid ratio (30–40 mL g−1) and ethanol concentration in the solvent (60–80% v/v). Under the optimal conditions, about 1.3 g of total flavonoids per 100 g of dry waste were recovered. A statistical analysis of the results was performed to provide a quantitative estimation of the influence of the four factors, alone or in combination, on the extraction yields. Overall, the results from this study indicate that corn husks are a valuable source of flavonoids and that they can be easily recovered by a sustainable and environmentally friendly extraction process. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavonoids; corn husks; cellulase; enzyme-assisted extraction; waste valorization flavonoids; corn husks; cellulase; enzyme-assisted extraction; waste valorization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zuorro, A.; Lavecchia, R.; González-Delgado, Á.D.; García-Martinez, J.B.; L’Abbate, P. Optimization of Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Corn Husks. Processes 2019, 7, 804. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110804

AMA Style

Zuorro A, Lavecchia R, González-Delgado ÁD, García-Martinez JB, L’Abbate P. Optimization of Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Corn Husks. Processes. 2019; 7(11):804. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110804

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zuorro, Antonio, Roberto Lavecchia, Ángel D. González-Delgado, Janet B. García-Martinez, and Pasqua L’Abbate. 2019. "Optimization of Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Corn Husks" Processes 7, no. 11: 804. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110804

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