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Article

Essential and Recovery Oils from Matricaria chamomilla Flowers as Environmentally Friendly Fungicides Against Four Fungi Isolated from Cultural Heritage Objects

1
Department of Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture and Garden Design, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
2
Restoration department, High Institute of Tourism, Hotel Management and Restoration, Abukir, Alexandria 21526, Egypt
3
Chair of Climate Change, Environmental Development and Vegetation Cover, Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110809
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Separation and Extraction Processes)
Recovery oils, obtained from the hydro-distillation of the fresh flowers of Matricaria chamomilla, as well as essential oils, were studied for their environmental purposes in cultural heritage. These oils were assayed for their antifungal activity against the growth of four molds isolated from archaeological manuscripts (Aspergillus niger), museum gypsum board Antique (A. flavus), museum archaeological tissue (A. terreus), and museum organic materials (Fusarium culmorum) of cultural heritage objects. Oils were applied to inhibit the growth of fungi at amounts of 25, 50, 75 and, 100 µL/mL, and compared with negative controls (0 µL/mL) or positive controls (Sertaconazol 3g/L). Using GC/MS analysis, the main chemical compounds identified in the essential oil were (Z)-β-farnesene (27%), D-limonene (15.25%), and α-bisabolol oxide A (14.9%), while the compounds identified in the recovery oil were α-bisabolol oxide A (18.6%), d-limonene (8.82%), and α-bisabolol oxide B (7.13%). A low amount of chamazulene was observed in both essential and recovery oils, with amounts of 0.73% and 3.50%, respectively. Recovery oil, at a concentration of 75 and 100 µL/mL, showed fungal mycelial inhibition (FMI) percentage for the growth of A. niger, with values of 78% and 85%, respectively. At a concentration of 100 µL/mL, both oils showed 100% FMI of A. terreus. Oils showed weak activity against the growth of A. flavus. Essential oils at 100 µL/mL had good activity against the growth of F. culmorum, with FMI of 86.6%. The results suggest the potential use of essential and recovery oils from M. chamomilla fresh flowers as environmentally friendly bio-fungicides. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal activity; chamazulene; GC/MS-analysis; Matricaria chamomilla; flower oils; cultural heritage antifungal activity; chamazulene; GC/MS-analysis; Matricaria chamomilla; flower oils; cultural heritage
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MDPI and ACS Style

EL-Hefny, M.; Abo Elgat, W.A.A.; Al-Huqail, A.A.; Ali, H.M. Essential and Recovery Oils from Matricaria chamomilla Flowers as Environmentally Friendly Fungicides Against Four Fungi Isolated from Cultural Heritage Objects. Processes 2019, 7, 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110809

AMA Style

EL-Hefny M, Abo Elgat WAA, Al-Huqail AA, Ali HM. Essential and Recovery Oils from Matricaria chamomilla Flowers as Environmentally Friendly Fungicides Against Four Fungi Isolated from Cultural Heritage Objects. Processes. 2019; 7(11):809. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110809

Chicago/Turabian Style

EL-Hefny, Mervat, Wael A.A. Abo Elgat, Asma A. Al-Huqail, and Hayssam M. Ali. 2019. "Essential and Recovery Oils from Matricaria chamomilla Flowers as Environmentally Friendly Fungicides Against Four Fungi Isolated from Cultural Heritage Objects" Processes 7, no. 11: 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110809

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