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Article

Oil Recovery from Palm Kernel Meal Using Subcritical Water Extraction in a Stirred Tank Reactor

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Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad del Norte, Km 5 vía Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla C.P. 080001, Colombia
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Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad del Norte, Km 5 vía Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla C.P. 080001, Colombia
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Departamento de Innovación, Aceites S.A., Santa Marta C.P. 470001, Colombia
4
Critical Fluid Symposia, Fayetteville, AR 72071, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110797
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Separation and Extraction Processes)
Palm kernel meal (PKM) is one of the main byproducts of the oil palm industry. PKM can be obtained as the result of solvent or mechanical extraction of palm kernel oil; in both cases, meal has a remaining oil content that could be recovered. In this work, PKM coming from a mechanical pressing extraction system with an initial oil content between 7 to 8% (wt.) was treated with subcritical water in a batch stirred reactor. To find the proper operational conditions, a three-step experimental process was performed. Extraction temperature, reaction time, particle size and alkaline catalyst usage were selected as process factors. After subcritical extraction, the system was cooled down and depressurized; then oil phase was separated by centrifugation. After extraction, meal was oven-dried at 80 °C. A maximum recovery of 0.034 kg-oil/kg-meal was obtained at 423 K, 720 s and particles smaller than 0.001 m. The experimental procedure showed consistent extraction yields of 40% without modifying the quality of the obtained oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: palm kernel meal; subcritical water extraction; oil recovery; clean separation palm kernel meal; subcritical water extraction; oil recovery; clean separation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bustillo Maury, J.; Aldana Rico, A.; García Pinto, C.; Hernández Medina, I.; Urueta Urueta, J.; King, J.W.; Bula Silvera, A. Oil Recovery from Palm Kernel Meal Using Subcritical Water Extraction in a Stirred Tank Reactor. Processes 2019, 7, 797. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110797

AMA Style

Bustillo Maury J, Aldana Rico A, García Pinto C, Hernández Medina I, Urueta Urueta J, King JW, Bula Silvera A. Oil Recovery from Palm Kernel Meal Using Subcritical Water Extraction in a Stirred Tank Reactor. Processes. 2019; 7(11):797. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110797

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bustillo Maury, Johnnys, Andrés Aldana Rico, Cindy García Pinto, Ingrid Hernández Medina, Juan Urueta Urueta, Jerry W. King, and Antonio Bula Silvera. 2019. "Oil Recovery from Palm Kernel Meal Using Subcritical Water Extraction in a Stirred Tank Reactor" Processes 7, no. 11: 797. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110797

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