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Article

The Effect of Fines on Hydraulic Conductivity of Lawrencepur, Chenab and Ravi Sand

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University College of Engineering & Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore 54700, Pakistan
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National Engineering Services (NESPAK), Lahore 54700, Pakistan
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Department of Civil Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110796
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
The amount of fines in sand greatly influence the permeability of sandy soils. Thus, this research was conducted to study the effect of plastic and non-plastic fines on the permeability of three types of sands (Lawrencepur sand, Chenab sand and Ravi sand). For this purpose, plastic and non-plastic fines were collected from different location of Lahore. Samples were prepared by mixing plastic and non-plastic fines into each type of sand separately, in amounts ranging from 0% to 50% with increments of five percent. Overall 63 samples were prepared. Sieve analysis and hydrometric analysis were performed to obtain particle size distribution for each sample. Atterberg’s limits were also determined and each sample was classified according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Compaction tests were performed on all samples as per the procedure in a standard Proctor test. The test samples were compacted in permeability molds with optimum moisture contents to obtain the density, as per a standard Proctor test. Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed on all sixty-three samples using a constant head permeameter and a falling head permeameter. Permeability results were plotted against the percentage of fines added. It was noted from the curves that the permeability of sand-fine mixtures shows a decreasing trend with the addition of fine contents. A few trials were performed to formulate a correlation. Validation of the correlation was performed with the results of 52 data sets from the field. Finally, the devised correlation was compared with three empirical equations proposed by Mujtaba, Kozeny–Carman and Hazen. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid; soil; permeability; sand; fines; transport fluid; soil; permeability; sand; fines; transport
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, T.A.; Farooq, K.; Muhammad, M.; Khan, M.M.; Shah, S.A.R.; Shoaib, M.; Aslam, M.A.; Raza, S.S. The Effect of Fines on Hydraulic Conductivity of Lawrencepur, Chenab and Ravi Sand. Processes 2019, 7, 796. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110796

AMA Style

Khan TA, Farooq K, Muhammad M, Khan MM, Shah SAR, Shoaib M, Aslam MA, Raza SS. The Effect of Fines on Hydraulic Conductivity of Lawrencepur, Chenab and Ravi Sand. Processes. 2019; 7(11):796. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110796

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Tanveer A., Khalid Farooq, Mirza Muhammad, Mudasser M. Khan, Syyed A.R. Shah, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad A. Aslam, and Syed S. Raza. 2019. "The Effect of Fines on Hydraulic Conductivity of Lawrencepur, Chenab and Ravi Sand" Processes 7, no. 11: 796. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110796

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