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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Investigation of Grout Nonlinear Flow Behavior through Rough Fractures

1
School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
2
State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
3
GeoEnergy Research Centre (GERC), University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
4
The Fifth Project Co., Ltd. of China Railway Bureau 14 Group, Yanzhou 272117, China
5
Jiangsu Vocational Institute of Architectural Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(10), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100736
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
This research experimentally analyzed the impacts of various water cement (W/C) ratios of ultrafine cement grout material and normal loads FN applied to fractures on grout nonlinear flow behavior through a rough plexiglass fractured sample. An effective self-made apparatus was designed and manufactured to conduct the stress-dependent grout flow tests on the plexiglass sample containing rough fractures. At each W/C ratio, the grout pressure P increased from 0 to 0.9 MPa, and the normal loads FN ranged from 666.3 to 1467.8 N. The results of the experiments indicate that (1) the Forchheimer’s law can be used to express the results of grout nonlinear flow through rough fractures. Moreover, both nonlinear coefficient a and linear coefficient b in Forchheimer’s law decreased with the increase of the W/C ratio, but increased with the increase of the FN value. (2) For normalized transmissivity, with the increase of Re, the decline of the T/T0Re curves means that the grout flow behavior through the fracture mainly went through three stages: the viscosity effect, then the weak inertia effect, and finally the strong inertia effect. The three stages showed that with the increase of Re, the grout flow state changed from linear to nonlinear. Moreover, with the increase of the W/C ratio, the Forchheimer coefficient β decreased. (3) At a given FN, the critical grout hydraulic gradient Jc decreased, but the critical Reynolds number Rec increased as the W/C ratio increased; at a given W/C ratio, Jc increased, but Rec decreased as FN increased. View Full-Text
Keywords: grout nonlinear flow; normalized transmissivity; critical grout hydraulic gradient; Reynolds number grout nonlinear flow; normalized transmissivity; critical grout hydraulic gradient; Reynolds number
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, Y.; Han, L.; Xu, C.; Meng, Q.; Liu, Z.; Zong, Y. Experimental Investigation of Grout Nonlinear Flow Behavior through Rough Fractures. Processes 2019, 7, 736.

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