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Article

“Saving Precious Seconds”—A Novel Approach to Implementing a Low-Cost Earthquake Early Warning System with Node-Level Detection and Alert Generation

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Joint Centre for Disaster Research, Massey University, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
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School of Engineering and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6012, New Zealand
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SeismoCity Ltd., Wellington 6023, New Zealand
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ADP Consultancy, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
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Department of Civil Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140, Korea
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ALSO Germany, 94315 Straubing, Germany
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Synopsys, Colombo 00800, Sri Lanka
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Datacom, Wellington 6011, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antony Bryant
Informatics 2022, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9010025
Received: 18 January 2022 / Revised: 2 March 2022 / Accepted: 4 March 2022 / Published: 8 March 2022
This paper presents findings from ongoing research that explores the ability to use Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS)-based technologies and various digital communication protocols for earthquake early warning (EEW). The paper proposes a step-by-step guide to developing a unique EEW network architecture driven by a Software-Defined Wide Area Network (SD-WAN)-based hole-punching technology consisting of MEMS-based, low-cost accelerometers hosted by the general public. In contrast with most centralised cloud-based approaches, a node-level decentralised data-processing is used to generate warnings with the support of a modified Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM)-based EEW algorithm. With several hypothetical earthquake scenarios, experiments were conducted to evaluate the system latencies of the proposed decentralised EEW architecture and its performance was compared with traditional centralised EEW architecture. The results from sixty simulations show that the SD-WAN-based hole-punching architecture supported by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) creates the optimum alerting conditions. Furthermore, the results provide clear evidence to show that the decentralised EEW system architecture can outperform the centralised EEW architecture and can save valuable seconds when generating EEW, leading to a longer warning time for the end-user. This paper contributes to the EEW literature by proposing a novel EEW network architecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: earthquake early warning; software-defined network; PLUM algorithm; decentralised architecture; MEMS; citizen science earthquake early warning; software-defined network; PLUM algorithm; decentralised architecture; MEMS; citizen science
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prasanna, R.; Chandrakumar, C.; Nandana, R.; Holden, C.; Punchihewa, A.; Becker, J.S.; Jeong, S.; Liyanage, N.; Ravishan, D.; Sampath, R.; Tan, M.L. “Saving Precious Seconds”—A Novel Approach to Implementing a Low-Cost Earthquake Early Warning System with Node-Level Detection and Alert Generation. Informatics 2022, 9, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9010025

AMA Style

Prasanna R, Chandrakumar C, Nandana R, Holden C, Punchihewa A, Becker JS, Jeong S, Liyanage N, Ravishan D, Sampath R, Tan ML. “Saving Precious Seconds”—A Novel Approach to Implementing a Low-Cost Earthquake Early Warning System with Node-Level Detection and Alert Generation. Informatics. 2022; 9(1):25. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9010025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prasanna, Raj, Chanthujan Chandrakumar, Rasika Nandana, Caroline Holden, Amal Punchihewa, Julia S. Becker, Seokho Jeong, Nandika Liyanage, Danuka Ravishan, Rangana Sampath, and Marion Lara Tan. 2022. "“Saving Precious Seconds”—A Novel Approach to Implementing a Low-Cost Earthquake Early Warning System with Node-Level Detection and Alert Generation" Informatics 9, no. 1: 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9010025

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