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Children 2018, 5(12), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5120169

Pediatric Fatty Liver and Obesity: Not Always Just a Matter of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

1
Pediatrics Residency Joint Programs, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Pediatrics Residency Joint Programs, University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Salerno), Italy
3
Clinical Pediatrics Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D’Aragona, 84131 Salerno, Italy
4
Children’s Hospital Santobono-Pausilipon, Department of Pediatrics, 80129 Naples, Italy
5
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Scuola Medica Salernitana, Pediatrics Section, University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Salerno), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Metabolic Dysregulation in Childhood)
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Abstract

Obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common cause of pediatric liver disease due to overweight/obesity large-scale epidemics. In clinical practice, diagnosis is usually based on clinical features, blood tests, and liver imaging. Here, we underline the need to make a correct differential diagnosis for a number of genetic, metabolic, gastrointestinal, nutritional, endocrine, muscular, and systemic disorders, and for iatrogenic/viral/autoimmune hepatitis as well. This is all the more important for patients who are not in the NAFLD classical age range and for those for whom a satisfactory response of liver test abnormalities to weight loss after dietary counseling and physical activity measures cannot be obtained or verified due to poor compliance. A correct diagnosis may be life-saving, as some of these conditions which appear similar to NAFLD have a specific therapy. In this study, the characteristics of the main conditions which require consideration are summarized, and a practical diagnostic algorithm is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty liver; obesity; NAFLD; differential diagnosis; systemic disorders; genetic and metabolic disorders fatty liver; obesity; NAFLD; differential diagnosis; systemic disorders; genetic and metabolic disorders
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Alfani, R.; Vassallo, E.; De Anseris, A.G.; Nazzaro, L.; D'Acunzo, I.; Porfito, C.; Mandato, C.; Vajro, P. Pediatric Fatty Liver and Obesity: Not Always Just a Matter of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Children 2018, 5, 169.

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