Optimized Application of Sustainable Development Strategy in International Engineering Project Management
2. Literature Review
2.1. Visual Clustering Coupling Analysis
2.2. Current International System Assessment
3. Methodology and Modeling
3.1. Construction Project Management
3.2. Environmental Impact during the Construction Phase
3.3. Project Construction Economic Cost
3.4. Cubic Spline Interpolation
4. Case Analysis and Management Design
4.1. Case Characteristics Analysis
- The construction site is narrow and spans the Ling Jiang River, which has an average tidal range of 4.02 m. During the construction period, it is necessary to ensure the normal navigation of 1000-tonne maritime ships. The local Bureau of Maritime Affairs approved the construction period of the main bridge to be 913 days.
- The construction site is affected by the natural climate in much of the year. The Mei Yu flood season is from March to June, and the typhoon season is from July to September.
- The bridge structure is complex; the construction of supporting auxiliary facilities uses up the construction period.
- Many workers engaging in professional types of work are required because of the short construction period, resulting in high risks for personnel management.
- Experienced management and technical personnel are required, such as full-time safety, power, structure, construction, quality, and test engineers, due to the difficulties relating to safety, progress, and quality management.
4.2. Project Management Planning and Design
5. Results and Discussion
- For sections 0#~17# and 22#~25#, the original ground was compacted within a depth of 100 cm; the compacted surface is compacted layer by layer and then backfilled with 60 cm of 37 lime earth, and a 20 cm layer of C20 was poured on the lime earth.
- For sections 17#~20# and 21#~23#, a temporary steel bridge was built as a temporary passage. The foundation of the temporary steel bridge was made of ø820 mm × 10 mm steel pipes with a length of 3500~4000 cm. The pile driver was pressed into the stressed rock stratum to a depth of 50~80 cm in the river. The steel pipe piles were arranged in two rows, with a vertical spacing of 1200 cm and a horizontal spacing of 400 cm (Figure 6).
5.1. Algorithm Optimization Assessment
- Model 1: f(x, y) = (−4e + 07).*x + (−1e + 07).*x.^2 + (4e + 08).
- Model 2: f(x, z) = (2e + 08).*x + (−5e + 07).*x.^2 + (2e + 08).
- Model 3: f(x, k) = (−1e + 08).*x + (3e + 06).*x.^2 + (4e + 08).
- Model 4: f(x, n) = (8e + 07).*x + (−3e + 07).*x.^2 + (2e + 08).
- SSE = 0 (the sum of squared errors of the corresponding points of the fitted data and the original data. The closer the SSE is to 0, the more successful the data prediction).
- The smaller the Std value (in the interval of y, z, n, k) the better the model.Matlab calculation program:>>clear all;% The first set of analyses;>>x = [−50,000,000:100,000:350,000,000];>>y = (−4e + 07).*x + (−1e + 07).*x.^2 + (4e + 08);>>z = (2e + 08).*x + (−5e + 07).*x.^2 + (2e + 08);>>stem3(x, y, z);>>cftool(x, y, z);Fitting conclusion:1a, In f(x, k, n): x∈(1.5e + 08), Std∈(1.155e + 08); n∈(1.075e + 23), Std∈(1.100e + 23).2b, In f(x, y, z): x∈(1.5e + 08), Std∈(1.155e + 08); y∈(−3.584e + 23), Std∈(3.665e + 23).3c, In f(x, z, n): x∈(1.5e + 08), Std∈(1.155e + 08); z∈(−1.792e + 24), Std∈(1.833e + 24).4d, In f(x, y, k): x∈(1.5e + 08), Std∈(1.155e + 08); k∈(−3.584e + 23), Std∈(3.665e + 23).
5.2. Evaluation System Innovation
6. Conclusions and Future Trends
Conflicts of Interest
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|References||Limitation (Analysis of the Representative Articles)|
|||The research is mainly based on questionnaires, without the establishment of a systematic framework and model, and lacks data analysis.|
|||Restricted data research leads to limited availability, questionnaire surveys in a specific institutional context affect the generalization of results, and the discussion mechanism is not sound.|
|||The application of an integrated project delivery centralized cost management system needs to be proved by research.|
|||Data analysis is one-sided, and the use of Ghanaian construction industry data can ensure the success of projects in other developing countries.|
|||Used 4D bridge information management model technology for bridge monitoring. Explained a method of project management without specific indicators, data, and framework standards for assessment.|
|||Extending the results to other research areas may not effectively minimize the environmental hazards, and the standard and standard weight are uncertain. Inherent human prejudice and subjective judgment system theory.|
|||To identify and overcome the scarcity of elements, we need to develop a complete green bridge rating system and theoretical research framework.|
|||Due to the particularity and complexity of construction projects, there is no systematic research framework, so it is difficult to promote.|
|||The specific research and analysis process is very clear, aiming at the analysis of the whole process of a single bridge.|
|||The research focuses on the possibility of, problems with and knowledge gap related to the use of product platforms in the construction environment, and their popularization needs to be further studied.|
|||The research is carried out in Chile. In order to transfer the results to any other country, the diversity of environments and climates in other countries must be taken into account.|
|||The diversity of construction projects and the uncertainty of information sources have an impact on productivity, and the framework has limitations.|
|||The research focuses on the theoretical derivation and analysis.|
|||The results of the effect on the success of the project cannot be applied or confirmed.|
|||We studied samples from Europe, North America, Australia, and other countries, and determined that the complexity of the project is the main criterion for success. There is a lack of further research on whether the project is consistent with international projects.|
|||The study dealt with the implementation of green building from the planning phase, without an in-depth study of the entire life cycle. Whether the application of the concept is in line with the implementation of international infrastructure remains to be further studied.|
|||Whether the research field can be expanded, the evaluation and optimization criteria and the selection of the best scheme need to be improved.|
|||This paper studies the reasons for promoting the development of green building by modeling. The specific construction environment, specific regional model, specific conditions, and expansion research require innovative analysis.|
|||The model is mainly used for the design and planning of a supply chain operating in the Gao Bei region. Whether it is fully applicable to supply chains operating in other regions needs to be studied.|
|||In the case of limited uncertainty, a case study is proposed on how to maintain environmental and social benefits. It requires fine research and promotion.|
|||There are many factors considered in the research process, and the depth needs to be specified. Focusing on the impact factors would strengthen the depth of the analysis.|
|||In the early stages of the application of fuzzy analysis, this paper considers the explanation of the basic concepts of fuzzy mathematics, and in the later stages, it considers the problem of distinguishing membership degrees for important influencing factors.|
|||The lack of application of research results, analysis methods and factors of the problem.|
|Number||Cost Name||Tax Rate||Calculation Method|
|1||Direct project cost||Quote the fixed tax rate.||According to “JTG 3830-2018” budget|
|2||insurance||3.00%||1 × 2|
|3||Environmental protection fee||1,500,000||Fixed costs|
|4||Safety production fee||1.50%||1 × 4|
|5||Management information fee||200,000||Fixed costs|
|6||Temporary road construction, maintenance, and demolition||0.16%||1 × 8|
|7||Temporary land occupation, occupying the river||0.25%||1 × 9|
|8||Temporary alms for project construction||0.24%||1 × 8|
|9||Standard chemical site construction)||0.42%||1 × 9|
|10||Provisional amount||5.00%||(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 7 + 8 + 9) × 10|
|11||Project construction cost||11 = 1 + ........... + 10|
|Project Name||Number (Tonne)||Ratio (%)||Project Name||Cost Incurred (CNY)||Ratio (%)|
|Material preparation stage||164,038.23||57.11||Main bridge||190,231,873||68.56|
|Construction stage||86,384.14||30.08||Vice bridge||67,245,171.51||24.23|
|Project Management Model||Design Number||Material and Construction Phase||Increase Auxiliary Facilities|
|EIN (Tonne)||CI (TC)||EIN (Tonne)||CI (TC)|
|Model one||① ②③④⑤||287,224.18||27,747.56||65,830.38||511.58|
|Model two||① ③④⑤||280,602.31||26,770.56||218,480.51||796.97|
|Model three||① ②③④⑤||287,224.18||27,747.56||3092.05||388.74|
|Model four||① ②-1③④⑤||283,913.25||27,344.62||155,742.18||683.55|
|EIN (Tonne)||CI (TC)||EIN (Tonne)||CI (TC)||EIN (Tonne)||CI (TC)||EIN (Tonne)||CI (TC)|
|Structural style||Prefabricated T-beam, installed on site.||On-site hanging basket method construction.||Prefabricated T-beam installed on site.|
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Zhou, Z.; Alcalá, J.; Yepes, V. Optimized Application of Sustainable Development Strategy in International Engineering Project Management. Mathematics 2021, 9, 1633. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9141633
Zhou Z, Alcalá J, Yepes V. Optimized Application of Sustainable Development Strategy in International Engineering Project Management. Mathematics. 2021; 9(14):1633. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9141633Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhou, Zhiwu, Julián Alcalá, and Víctor Yepes. 2021. "Optimized Application of Sustainable Development Strategy in International Engineering Project Management" Mathematics 9, no. 14: 1633. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9141633