- What are students taught about food hygiene and safety in schools?
- What are the experiences and attitudes of young people towards foodborne illness?
- What are the determinants of young people’s food hygiene behaviours?
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. National Curriculum around Food Hygiene and Safety
3.2. Focus Group/Interview Participants
3.3. Key Themes Identified within Prominent TDF Domains
3.3.3. Beliefs about Capabilities
3.3.4. Social and Professional Role/Identity
3.3.5. Social Influences
3.3.6. Beliefs about Consequences
3.3.7. Environmental Context and Resources
4.1. Main Findings
4.2. Comparison to Other Research
4.3. Future Research Directions
4.4. Implications for Schools and Student Food Hygiene Resources
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Topic in Curriculum||England||Hungary||Greece||France||Portugal||Spain||Denmark|
|Spoilage and contamination||√||√||√||√||√||√|
|Microorganisms and enzymes||√||√||√||√||√|
|Buying, storing and cooking food safely||√||√||√||√||√||√||√|
|Keeping work areas clean||√||√||√||√|
|Food storage and preservation||√||√||√||√||√|
|TDF 1 Domain||Main Themes||Example Quotes|
Definition of food hygiene
|“Green is for vegetables, blue for fish and red for meat… [chopping boards]”. (Student in Portugal)|
“[cross-contamination] …when you touch meat and then touch vegetables”. (Student in England)
|Skills||Cooking skills |
Source of skills—motherWashing up
|“You just kind of guess when it’s [chicken] not pink, it’s done”. (Student in England)|
|Beliefs about capabilities||Ability to cook||“…it’s my parents who cook and when I’m alone, I cook, but the most basic possible”. (Student in France)|
|Social and professional role and identity||Work experience|
Role as student
|“I usually cook at my home. I don’t like to cook in another place because I’m afraid of something going wrong”. (Student in Portugal)|
|Social influences||Perceived cultural influence|
|“Yeah, I’d rinse it off [raw chicken] before I chop it…because my mum told me to”. (Student in England)|
|Beliefs about consequences||Food hygiene concerns |
Importance of handwashing
Beliefs about foodborne illness
Home being a safe environment
|“It’s not that severe, it’s just puking and having a bit of a headache… I’ve never really been worried about it [food poisoning]”. (Student in England)|
|Environmental context and resources||Barriers to learning about food safety|
Ideas for future resources
School environment and resources
|“We should make presentations, we shouldn’t just be sitting and listening to the teacher and making notes, because nothing will stick. And we can’t prepare for life”. (Student in Hungary)|
|“When we’re cooking, my mum usually says that we have to wash our hands and food”. (Student in Portugal)|
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