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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Consultations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Sleep in Improving Patient-Reported Psychiatric Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Illnesses

1
SinfoníaRx, Tucson, AZ 85701, USA
2
College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2019, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010002
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
One fifth of U.S. adults have a current mental illness. Nutrition, physical activity, and sleep are critical to physical health; any related deficiencies may worsen existing mental health conditions. Little is known about the impact of clinical pharmacist assessment and consultation in improving physical and mental health outcomes. The study objective was to determine whether patients’ mental health status improved following clinical pharmacist consultation. This pilot study involved clinical pharmacist-delivered services at an integrated medical behavioral health clinic in June 2018. Inclusion criteria required adults aged 18 years older, an established mental health diagnosis, and taking ≥2 prescribed psychotropic medications. One pharmacist conducted telephonic, medical, and psychiatric health risk assessment and counseling to improve nutrition, physical activity, and sleep status, both initially and at two-week follow-up. The Duke Health Profile (Duke) physical, anxiety, depression, and anxiety-depression scores measured patients’ pre/post changes. Participants (n = 20) experienced higher Duke physical scores (p = 0.007) and significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.025), depression (p = 0.001) and anxiety-depression scores (p = 0.005) at follow-up. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for pharmacist-led, targeted, telephonic counseling in improving short-term physical and mental Duke health scores. Further research evaluating the impact of clinical pharmacists’ role in improving physical and behavioral health outcomes is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacist; education; Duke; nutrition; exercise; sleep pharmacist; education; Duke; nutrition; exercise; sleep
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bingham, J.; Axon, D.R.; Scovis, N.; Taylor, A.M. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Consultations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Sleep in Improving Patient-Reported Psychiatric Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Illnesses. Pharmacy 2019, 7, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010002

AMA Style

Bingham J, Axon DR, Scovis N, Taylor AM. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Consultations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Sleep in Improving Patient-Reported Psychiatric Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Illnesses. Pharmacy. 2019; 7(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bingham, Jennifer; Axon, David R.; Scovis, Nicole; Taylor, Ann M. 2019. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Consultations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Sleep in Improving Patient-Reported Psychiatric Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Illnesses" Pharmacy 7, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010002

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