Opportunistically Exploiting Internet of Things for Wireless Sensor Network Routing in Smart Cities
2. Related Work
3. Problem Details
3.1. Problem Scenario
- Interaction with the IoT devices: The IT Platform should enable WSN to interact with IoT devices when they are available.
- Independent routing: The platform must allow WSN to continue delivering data to the sink using their normal routing protocol, if there is no IoT devices in the vicinity. This is important since WSN should not be fully dependent on IoT devices, as IoT devices are not a part of their network. Rather they are exploited opportunistically.
- Energy efficiency: By exploiting IoT devices, energy consumption in WSN is conserved.
- Network lifetime: The energy of WSN should be consumed in such a way that a few sensor nodes shouldn’t be drained quicker than rest of the network, rather all sensor nodes should be used in a balanced way. This means that along with energy conservation the time duration between first dieing node and the most dieing nodes (making network non-functional) shouldn’t be long.
- Data delivery: Typically when IoT devices are exploited, the amount of received packets should either be the same or should be increased as compared to routed only using WSN. Thus, packet loss could be minimized.
- IoT devices are Vehicles/cars/passengers;
- WSN is surrounded by IoT devices, but can function without them; and
- WSN nodes send their data to a single sink.
4. The Integration Platform
4.1. IoT Discovery and Negotiation in IT Platform
|Algorithm 1 getBestIoT|
|iots = //array of IoT objects|
iot.rssi = //received signal strength indicator value
iot.distance = //Maximum distance between two points minus distance of IoT from Sink
iot.speed = //Maximum allowed speed in which communication is possible minus speed of IoT
|2:||for each do //remove iot replies with less than threshold RSSI.|
|7:||best = iots|
|8:||for each do|
|9:||bestValue = 2 * best.rssi + best.speed + best.distance|
|10:||pValue = 2 * p.rssi + p.speed + p.distance|
|12:||best = p|
4.2. Sensor Activity Modes in WSN Layer
4.3. Sensor Selection By IoT
4.4. Traversing of Data Packets
|Algorithm 2 getBestSN|
|SN = //array of SN objects|
SN.rssi = //received signal strength indicator value
SN.distance = //Maximum distance between two points minus IoT’s distance from Sink
SN.energyLevel = //Remaining Energy of Sensor
|2:||for each do //remove SN replies with less than threshold RSSI.|
|7:||best = SN|
|8:||for each do|
|9:||bestValue = 2 * best.rssi + best.energyLevel + best.distance|
|10||pValue = 2 * p.rssi + p.energyLevel + p.distance|
|12:||best = p|
|Algorithm 3 IsDirectionToSink|
|previousX = //previous X position of IoT device|
previousY = //previous Y position of IoT device
currentX = //current X position of IoT device
currentY = //current X position of IoT device
sinkX = // X position of Sink
sinkY = // Y position of Sink
getDistance(x1,y1, x2,y2) // returns euclidean distance between two points
|2:||currentDistance = getDistance(currentX, currentY, sinkX, sinkY)|
|3:||previousDistance = getDistance(previousX, previousY, sinkX, sinkY)|
|5:||returnValue = True|
|7:||returnValue = False|
4.5. Gossip Protocol
|Algorithm 4 GossipAlgorithm|
|sendIoTExistMessageTo (P,m) = //sends message m to neighbor P|
isIoTRepliesEnough() = //returns True if no. of IoT replies is , else returns False
state = //represents the current state of node
|1:||proceduregossipAlgorithm() //Push method|
|2:||while true do|
|5:||m.age = −1|
|11:||procedureonIoTExistReceive(m) //Push Receiver method|
|18:||P = //random neighbor|
|20:||state = IOT|
4.6. Advantages of IT Platform
- Using IT Platform and IoT devices, there is no notable overhead on a sensor due to communication between the two layers.
- When the network gets disconnected due to nodes with depleted energy or any other reason, then packets can still reach the the Sink via IoT devices.
- Overall WSN communication load is reduced by exploiting the IoT devices. This is because the inter communication between the sensor nodes for multi-hop routing to the Sink is reduced.
- By allowing sensors nodes to sleep more, the idle listening is reduced and less energy is consumed.
- The platform does not require any extra computations, thus no additional computational overhead on sensors.
- There is no additional sensing load on the sensors of WSN.
5. Simulation Details and Results
5.1. Evaluation Metrics
- Energy consumed: Average energy consumed by all sensors is depicted using this metric. The simulator measures energy consumption by considering the amount of time sensor radio has been in receive or transfer mode . It is independent of data transfer or receive activity in a mode rather depends on duration the sensor is in specific mode. Table 2 displays the energy consumption of CC2420 Radio we simulated, in different modes .
- Network lifetime: This metric also depicts energy consumed, but shows the lifetime of the whole network. Using a conservative approach, the network is considered non-functional whenever the first node dies.
- Nodes Alive: Shows the percentage of sensor nodes alive at specific simulation time.
- Packet reception rate: This metric shows the rate of number of packets received by the sink as compared to the number of packets sent by each of the sensors. Any duplicate packet is discarded by the sink. The packet loss is there because, in all kinds of wireless communication, as we are using realistic simulation models (Section 5.2), it is common that there is some packet loss.
5.2. Simulation Environment
5.3. Simulation Setup
5.4. Simulation Results
Conflicts of Interest
|IoT||Internet of Things|
|WSN||Wireless Sensor Networks|
|IT Platform||Integration Platform|
|QoS||Quality of Service|
|MANETS||Mobile Adhoc NETworks|
|AODV||Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector|
|LPLR||Low Power Long Range|
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|send (helloIoT)||SN||IoT||Message to search IoT in vicinity|
|send (distance, speed)||IoT||SN||IoT reply message to SN|
|send (selectedOK)||SN||IoT||SN confirms IoT as selected candidate|
|send (OK)||IoT||SN||IoT reply OK to selection as approval to send data and waits for dataPacket.|
|send (dataPacket, synchTime)||SN||IoT||SN sends dataPacket along with synchTime of WSN|
|send (dataAck)||IoT||SN||Acknowledge message for data reception|
|send (dropHello)||IoT||SN||Hello message to find SN to drop dataPacket to WSN layer.|
|send (energy, RxSlot, location)||SN||IoT||Reply to dropHello message with SN’s energy level and location|
|send (selectedOK)||IoT||SN||IoT confirms SN as selected SN for sending data|
|send (OK)||SN||IoT||Reply OK to selection as approval to send dataPacket|
|send (dataPacket)||IoT||SN||IoT drops datapacket to selected SN|
|send (dataAck)||SN||IoT||Acknowledge message for data reception|
|Radio Off||0.04 mW|
|Radio Sleep||1.4 mW|
|Radio Receiver||62 mW|
|Radio Transmitter (0 dBm)||57.42 mW|
|Radio Transmitter (−5 dBm)||46.2 mW|
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Hanif, S.; Khedr, A.M.; Al Aghbari, Z.; Agrawal, D.P. Opportunistically Exploiting Internet of Things for Wireless Sensor Network Routing in Smart Cities. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7, 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7040046
Hanif S, Khedr AM, Al Aghbari Z, Agrawal DP. Opportunistically Exploiting Internet of Things for Wireless Sensor Network Routing in Smart Cities. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. 2018; 7(4):46. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7040046Chicago/Turabian Style
Hanif, Shaza, Ahmed M. Khedr, Zaher Al Aghbari, and Dharma P. Agrawal. 2018. "Opportunistically Exploiting Internet of Things for Wireless Sensor Network Routing in Smart Cities" Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks 7, no. 4: 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7040046