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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 274-409

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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of Epidemic Algorithms on Detecting Node Replicas in Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(4), 378-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4040378
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A node replication attack against a wireless sensor network involves surreptitious efforts by an adversary to insert duplicate sensor nodes into the network while avoiding detection. Due to the lack of tamper-resistant hardware and the low cost of sensor nodes, launching replication attacks
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A node replication attack against a wireless sensor network involves surreptitious efforts by an adversary to insert duplicate sensor nodes into the network while avoiding detection. Due to the lack of tamper-resistant hardware and the low cost of sensor nodes, launching replication attacks takes little effort to carry out. Naturally, detecting these replica nodes is a very important task and has been studied extensively. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed, randomized sensor duplicate detection algorithm called Discard to detect node replicas in group-deployed wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is an epidemic, self-organizing duplicate detection scheme, which exhibits emergent properties. Epidemic schemes have found diverse applications in distributed computing: load balancing, topology management, audio and video streaming, computing aggregate functions, failure detection, network and resource monitoring, to name a few. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first attempt at exploring the potential of this paradigm to detect replicas in a wireless sensor network. Through analysis and simulation, we show that our scheme achieves robust replica detection with substantially lower communication, computational and storage requirements than prior schemes in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Colorful Textile Antennas Integrated into Embroidered Logos
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(4), 371-377; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4040371
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a new methodology to create colorful textile antennas that can be embroidered within logos or other aesthetic shapes. Conductive threads (e-threads) have already been used in former embroidery unicolor approaches as attributed to the corresponding conductive material, viz. silver or
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We present a new methodology to create colorful textile antennas that can be embroidered within logos or other aesthetic shapes. Conductive threads (e-threads) have already been used in former embroidery unicolor approaches as attributed to the corresponding conductive material, viz. silver or copper. But so far, they have not been adapted to ‘print’ colorful textile antennas. For the first time, we propose an approach to create colorful electronic textile shapes. In brief, the embroidery process uses an e-thread in the bobbin case of the sewing machine to embroider the antenna on the back side of the garment. Concurrently, a colorful assistant yarn is threaded through the embroidery needle of the embroidery machine and used to secure or ‘couch’ the e-threads onto the fabric. In doing so, a colorful shape is generated on the front side of the garment. The proposed antennas can be unobtrusively integrated into clothing or other accessories for a wide range of applications (e.g., wireless communications, Radio Frequency IDentification, sensing). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Critical Infrastructure Surveillance Using Secure Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(4), 336-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4040336
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a secure wireless sensor network (WSN) for the surveillance, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures was developed. To guarantee the security of the system, the main focus was the implementation of a unique security concept, which includes both security on
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In this work, a secure wireless sensor network (WSN) for the surveillance, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures was developed. To guarantee the security of the system, the main focus was the implementation of a unique security concept, which includes both security on the communication level, as well as mechanisms that ensure the functional safety during its operation. While there are many theoretical approaches in various subdomains of WSNs—like network structures, communication protocols and security concepts—the construction, implementation and real-life application of these devices is still rare. This work deals with these aforementioned aspects, including all phases from concept-generation to operation of a secure wireless sensor network. While the key focus of this paper lies on the security and safety features of the WSN, the detection, localization and classification capabilities resulting from the interaction of the nodes’ different sensor types are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security Issues in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Lesson Learned from Collecting Quantified Self Information via Mobile and Wearable Devices
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(4), 315-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4040315
Received: 12 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ubiquity and affordability of mobile and wearable devices has enabled us to continually and digitally record our daily life activities. Consequently, we are seeing the growth of data collection experiments in several scientific disciplines. Although these have yielded promising results, mobile and
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The ubiquity and affordability of mobile and wearable devices has enabled us to continually and digitally record our daily life activities. Consequently, we are seeing the growth of data collection experiments in several scientific disciplines. Although these have yielded promising results, mobile and wearable data collection experiments are often restricted to a specific configuration that has been designed for a unique study goal. These approaches do not address all the real-world challenges of “continuous data collection” systems. As a result, there have been few discussions or reports about such issues that are faced when “implementing these platforms” in a practical situation. To address this, we have summarized our technical and user-centric findings from three lifelogging and Quantified Self data collection studies, which we have conducted in real-world settings, for both smartphones and smartwatches. In addition to (i) privacy and (ii) battery related issues; based on our findings we recommend further works to consider (iii) implementing multivariate reflection of the data; (iv) resolving the uncertainty and data loss; and (v) consider to minimize the manual intervention required by users. These findings have provided insights that can be used as a guideline for further Quantified Self or lifelogging studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Computing and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle On Optimal Multi-Sensor Network Configuration for 3D Registration
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(4), 293-314; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4040293
Received: 25 July 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multi-sensor networks provide complementary information for various taskslike object detection, movement analysis and tracking. One of the important ingredientsfor efficient multi-sensor network actualization is the optimal configuration of sensors.In this work, we consider the problem of optimal configuration of a network of coupledcamera-inertial
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Multi-sensor networks provide complementary information for various taskslike object detection, movement analysis and tracking. One of the important ingredientsfor efficient multi-sensor network actualization is the optimal configuration of sensors.In this work, we consider the problem of optimal configuration of a network of coupledcamera-inertial sensors for 3D data registration and reconstruction to determine humanmovement analysis. For this purpose, we utilize a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimizationwhich involves geometric visibility constraints. Our approach obtains optimal configurationmaximizing visibility in smart sensor networks, and we provide a systematic study usingedge visibility criteria, a GA for optimal placement, and extension from 2D to 3D.Experimental results on both simulated data and real camera-inertial fused data indicate weobtain promising results. The method is scalable and can also be applied to other smartnetwork of sensors. We provide an application in distributed coupled video-inertial sensorbased 3D reconstruction for human movement analysis in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Wireless Sensor Network)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Comparison of a Novel Adaptive Protocol with the Fixed Power Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(4), 274-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4040274
Received: 27 July 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 8 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we compare the performance of a novel adaptive protocol with the fixed power transmission protocol using experimental data when the distance between the transmitter and the receiver is fixed. In fixed power transmission protocol, corresponding to the distance between the
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In this paper, we compare the performance of a novel adaptive protocol with the fixed power transmission protocol using experimental data when the distance between the transmitter and the receiver is fixed. In fixed power transmission protocol, corresponding to the distance between the sensor and the hub, there is a fixed power level that provides the optimal or minimum value in terms of energy consumption while maintaining a threshold Quality of Service (QoS) parameter. This value is bounded by the available output power levels of a given radio transceiver. The proposed novel adaptive power control protocol tracks and supersedes that energy expenditure by using an intelligent algorithm to ramp up or down the output power level as and when required. This protocol does not use channel side information in terms of received signal strength indication (RSSI) or link quality indication (LQI) for channel estimation to decide the transmission power. It also controls the number of allowed retransmissions for error correction. Experimental data have been collected at different distances between the transmitting sensor and the hub. It can be observed that the energy consumption of the fixed power level is at least 25% more than the proposed adaptive protocol for comparable packet success rate. Full article
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