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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2015), Pages 50-153

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Open AccessArticle Directional Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(2), 67-153; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4020067
Received: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7114 | PDF Full-text (7764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC) protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs). The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher
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This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC) protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs). The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Directional Antenna Enhanced Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Design and Propagation Study of a Compact Dual Band Antenna for Healthcare Applications
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(2), 50-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan4020050
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 5 January 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4427 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a dual band planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been investigated for cooperative on- and off-body communications. Free space and on-body performance parameters like return loss, bandwidth, radiation pattern and efficiency of this antenna are shown and investigated. The on-
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In this paper, a dual band planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been investigated for cooperative on- and off-body communications. Free space and on-body performance parameters like return loss, bandwidth, radiation pattern and efficiency of this antenna are shown and investigated. The on- and off-body radio propagation channel performance at 2.45 GHz and 1.9 GHz have been investigated, respectively. Experimental investigations are performed both in the anechoic chamber and in an indoor environment. The path loss exponent has been extracted for both on- and off-body radio propagation scenarios. For on-body propagation, the path loss exponent is 2.48 and 2.22 in the anechoic chamber and indoor environment, respectively. The path loss exponent is 1.27 for off-body radio propagation situation. For on-body case, the path loss has been characterized for ten different locations on the body at 2.45 GHz, whereas for off-body case radio channel studies are performed for five different locations at 1.9 GHz. The proposed antenna shows a good on- and off-body radio channel performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Area Networks)
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