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Article

Enhanced UV-Reflection Facilitated a Shift in the Pollination System of the Red Poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae)

1
Institut für Biologie-Neurobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise Str. 1–3, 14195 Berlin, Germany
2
INIA La Cruz, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chorrillos 86, La Cruz 2280454, Chile
3
Department of Ecology, Evolution & Behaviour, Center for the Study of Rationality, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
4
Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
5
School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (CCM), Division of Experimental Psychiatry and (Epi)Genomics, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
Current address: Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago 7800003, Chile.
Plants 2020, 9(8), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080927
Received: 31 May 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 22 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Pollinator Interactions in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems)
Evolutionary change is considered a major factor influencing the invasion of new habitats by plants. Yet, evidence on how such modifications promote range expansion remains rather limited. Here we investigated flower color modifications in the red poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae), as a result of its introduction into Central Europe and the impact of those modifications on its interactions with pollinators. We found that while flowers of Eastern Mediterranean poppies reflect exclusively in the red part of the spectrum, those of Central European poppies reflect both red and ultraviolet (UV) light. This change coincides with a shift from pollination by glaphyrid beetles (Glaphyridae) to bees. Glaphyrids have red-sensitive photoreceptors that are absent in bees, which therefore will not be attracted by colors of exclusively red-reflecting flowers. However, UV-reflecting flowers are easily detectable by bees, as revealed by visual modeling. In the North Mediterranean, flowers with low and high UV reflectance occur sympatrically. We hypothesize that Central European populations of P. rhoeas were initially polymorphic with respect to their flower color and that UV reflection drove a shift in the pollination system of P. rhoeas that facilitated its spread across Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: flower color; pollination systems; color vision; biological invasions flower color; pollination systems; color vision; biological invasions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Harms, J.; Hadar, R.; Márquez, N.; Menzel, R.; Shmida, A.; Stavenga, D.G.; Vorobyev, M. Enhanced UV-Reflection Facilitated a Shift in the Pollination System of the Red Poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae). Plants 2020, 9, 927. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080927

AMA Style

Martínez-Harms J, Hadar R, Márquez N, Menzel R, Shmida A, Stavenga DG, Vorobyev M. Enhanced UV-Reflection Facilitated a Shift in the Pollination System of the Red Poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae). Plants. 2020; 9(8):927. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080927

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Hadar, Ravit; Márquez, Natalia; Menzel, Randolf; Shmida, Avi; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Vorobyev, Misha. 2020. "Enhanced UV-Reflection Facilitated a Shift in the Pollination System of the Red Poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae)" Plants 9, no. 8: 927. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080927

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