Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Rooting of Capparis spinosa L. as Affected by Genotype and by the Proliferation Method Adopted During the Multiplication Phase
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Characterization of an Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) Induced Mutant Population in Capsicum annuum L.
Open AccessArticle

Flower Colour Polymorphism, Pollination Modes, Breeding System and Gene Flow in Anemone coronaria

1
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
2
Department of Biology and Environment University of Haifa-Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel
3
Agroecology & Pollination Group, Landscape Ecology & Plant Production Systems, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Boulevard du Triomphe CP 264/2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030397
Received: 6 February 2020 / Revised: 7 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Pollinator Interactions in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems)
The flower colour of Anemone coronaria (Ranunculaceae) is a genetically inherited trait. Such intra-specific flower colour polymorphism might be driven by pollinators, other non-pollinating agents, or by abiotic factors. We investigated the genetic relations among red, white and purple-blue flower colour morphs growing in 10 populations of A. coronaria in Israel, in relation to their breeding system, pollination modes, differential perception by bees and visitors’ behaviour. Flowers of these three morphs differed in their reflectance that could be perceived by bees. Honeybees, solitary bees and flies demonstrated only partial preferences for the different colour morphs. No spontaneous self-pollination was found; however, fruit set under nets, excluding insects but allowing wind pollination, was not significantly lower than that of natural free pollinated flowers, indicating a potential role of wind pollination. Anemone coronaria flowers were visited by various insects, honeybees and Andrena sp. preferred the white and purple-blue morphs, while the syrphid flies preferred the white flowers. Thus, visitor behaviour can only partially explain the evolution or maintenance of the colour polymorphism. No significant genetic differences were found among the populations or colour morphs. Wind pollination, causing random gene flow, may explain why no significant genetic divergence was found among all studied populations and their colour morphs. The existence of monomorphic red populations, along other polymorphic populations, might be explained by linked resistance to aridity and/or grazing. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anemone coronaria L.; flower colour polymorphism; bees; flies; pollination; population genetics Anemone coronaria L.; flower colour polymorphism; bees; flies; pollination; population genetics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dafni, A.; Tzohari, H.; Ben-Shlomo, R.; Vereecken, N.J.; Ne’eman, G. Flower Colour Polymorphism, Pollination Modes, Breeding System and Gene Flow in Anemone coronaria. Plants 2020, 9, 397.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop