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Citrus Flavones: An Update on Sources, Biological Functions, and Health Promoting Properties

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
Department of Agricultural Science, Università degli Studi Mediterranea, Feo di Vito, IT-89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(3), 288;
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2019 Feature Papers by Plants’ Editorial Board Members)
Citrus spp. are among the most widespread plants cultivated worldwide and every year millions of tons of fruit, juices, or processed compounds are produced and consumed, representing one of the main sources of nutrients in human diet. Among these, the flavonoids play a key role in providing a wide range of health beneficial effects. Apigenin, diosmetin, luteolin, acacetin, chrysoeriol, and their respective glycosides, that occur in concentrations up to 60 mg/L, are the most common flavones found in Citrus fruits and juices. The unique characteristics of their basic skeleton and the nature and position of the substituents have attracted and stimulated vigorous investigations as a consequence of an enormous biological potential, that manifests itself as (among other properties) antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. This review analyzes the biochemical, pharmacological, and biological properties of Citrus flavones, emphasizing their occurrence in Citrus spp. fruits and juices, on their bioavailability, and their ability to modulate signal cascades and key metabolic enzymes both in vitro and in vivo. Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciFinder were used to investigate recent published articles on Citrus spp. in terms of components and bioactivity potentials. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavones; Citrus; antioxidant; antimicrobial; anticancer; anti-inflammatory flavones; Citrus; antioxidant; antimicrobial; anticancer; anti-inflammatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barreca, D.; Mandalari, G.; Calderaro, A.; Smeriglio, A.; Trombetta, D.; Felice, M.R.; Gattuso, G. Citrus Flavones: An Update on Sources, Biological Functions, and Health Promoting Properties. Plants 2020, 9, 288.

AMA Style

Barreca D, Mandalari G, Calderaro A, Smeriglio A, Trombetta D, Felice MR, Gattuso G. Citrus Flavones: An Update on Sources, Biological Functions, and Health Promoting Properties. Plants. 2020; 9(3):288.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barreca, Davide, Giuseppina Mandalari, Antonella Calderaro, Antonella Smeriglio, Domenico Trombetta, Maria R. Felice, and Giuseppe Gattuso. 2020. "Citrus Flavones: An Update on Sources, Biological Functions, and Health Promoting Properties" Plants 9, no. 3: 288.

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