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Vernalization Requirement, but Not Post-Vernalization Day Length, Conditions Flowering in Carrot (Daucus carota L.)

1
Estación Experimental Agropecuaria La Consulta, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), ex Ruta 40 Km 96, La Consulta 5567, Argentina
2
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1425, Argentina
3
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Almirante Brown 500, Luján de Cuyo 5505, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
María Soledad Alessandro passed away in August of 2021, during preparation of this manuscript.
Academic Editors: Shweta Kalve, Megan House and Gaurav Zinta
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081075
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 27 March 2022 / Accepted: 30 March 2022 / Published: 15 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Flowering Time and Their Environmental Regulation in Crops)
Carrots require a certain number of cold hours to become vernalized and proceed to the reproductive stage, and this phenomenon is genotype-dependent. Annual carrots require less cold than biennials to flower; however, quantitative variation within annuals and biennials also exists, defining a gradient for vernalization requirement (VR). The flowering response of carrots to day length, after vernalization has occurred, is controversial. This vegetable has been described both as a long-day and a neutral-day species. The objective of this study was to evaluate flowering time and frequency in response to different cold treatments and photoperiod regimes in various carrot genotypes. To this end, three annual genotypes from India, Brazil, and Pakistan, and a biennial carrot from Japan, were exposed to 7.5 °C during 30, 60, 90, or 120 days, and then transferred to either long day (LD) or short day (SD) conditions. Significant variation (p < 0.05) among the carrot genotypes and among cold treatments were found, with increased flowering rates and earlier onset of flowering being associated with longer cold exposures. No significant differences in response to photoperiod were found, suggesting that post-vernalization day length does not influence carrot flowering. These findings will likely impact carrot breeding and production of both root and seed, helping in the selection of adequate genotypes and sowing dates to manage cold exposure and day-length for different production purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: flowering; vernalization requirement; photoperiod; annual; biennial; Daucus carota L. flowering; vernalization requirement; photoperiod; annual; biennial; Daucus carota L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wohlfeiler, J.; Alessandro, M.S.; Morales, A.; Cavagnaro, P.F.; Galmarini, C.R. Vernalization Requirement, but Not Post-Vernalization Day Length, Conditions Flowering in Carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plants 2022, 11, 1075. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081075

AMA Style

Wohlfeiler J, Alessandro MS, Morales A, Cavagnaro PF, Galmarini CR. Vernalization Requirement, but Not Post-Vernalization Day Length, Conditions Flowering in Carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plants. 2022; 11(8):1075. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wohlfeiler, Josefina, María Soledad Alessandro, Andrés Morales, Pablo Federico Cavagnaro, and Claudio Rómulo Galmarini. 2022. "Vernalization Requirement, but Not Post-Vernalization Day Length, Conditions Flowering in Carrot (Daucus carota L.)" Plants 11, no. 8: 1075. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081075

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