Next Article in Journal
Botany, Nutritional Value, Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Quinoa
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Petal Color, Water Status, and Extraction Method on Qualitative Characteristics of Rosa rugosa Liqueur
Previous Article in Journal
Durability of Adult Plant Resistance Gene Yr18 in Partial Resistance Behavior of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Genotypes with Different Degrees of Tolerance to Stripe Rust Disease, Caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici: A Five-Year Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant Activity and Discrimination of Organic Apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) Cultivated in the Western Region of Romania: A DPPH· Kinetics–PCA Approach
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Strategies to Improve the Potential Functionality of Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages

Ancuța-Liliana Keșa
Carmen Rodica Pop
Elena Mudura
Liana Claudia Salanță
Antonella Pasqualone
Cosmin Dărab
Cristina Burja-Udrea
Haifeng Zhao
6,7 and
Teodora Emilia Coldea
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, Via Amendola, 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
Department of Electric Power Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400027 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Faculty of Engineering, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, 10 Victoriei Blv., 550024 Sibiu, Romania
School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
Research Institute for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Guangzhou 510640, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first author, these authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2263;
Submission received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 17 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds and Prospects for Their Use in Beverages)


It is only recently that fermentation has been facing a dynamic revival in the food industry. Fermented fruit-based beverages are among the most ancient products consumed worldwide, while in recent years special research attention has been granted to assess their functionality. This review highlights the functional potential of alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented fruit beverages in terms of chemical and nutritional profiles that impact on human health, considering the natural occurrence and enrichment of fermented fruit-based beverages in phenolic compounds, vitamins and minerals, and pro/prebiotics. The health benefits of fruit-based beverages that resulted from lactic, acetic, alcoholic, or symbiotic fermentation and specific daily recommended doses of each claimed bioactive compound were also highlighted. The latest trends on pre-fermentative methods used to optimize the extraction of bioactive compounds (maceration, decoction, and extraction assisted by supercritical fluids, microwave, ultrasound, pulsed electric fields, high pressure homogenization, or enzymes) are critically assessed. As such, optimized fermentation processes and post-fermentative operations, reviewed in an industrial scale-up, can prolong the shelf life and the quality of fermented fruit beverages.

1. Introduction

Fruit-based beverages are among the oldest and most traditional fermented products. Fruits are characterized by high sugar content and thus are a raw material particularly suitable for alcoholic fermentation and other fermentations, such as acetic or lactic fermentation. Numerous examples can be mentioned for both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented fruit-based beverages, such as vinegar, fruit beer, water kefir [1], cider, wine (both conventional wine and wines from fruits other than grape), and several less common traditional products such as the Turkish hardaliye, the Namibian ombike and omalunga, the Mexican tepache, the Rwandese urwagwa, the setopoti and the khadi from Botswana, all described in detail in Section 1.1.
Interest in the consumption of fermented beverages has been steadily increasing due to consumer awareness of their positive effect on human health, mostly related to the content of bioactive compounds and their purported probiotic effect. Several methods have been therefore proposed to improve the extraction of bioactive compounds from the raw materials, both at the pre-fermentative stage (by simple maceration, decoction, and by extraction assisted by supercritical fluids, microwave, ultrasound, or enzymes) and during fermentation or post-fermentation, using optimized processes and technologies that are able to prolong the shelf life and quality of fermented fruit beverages [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19].
Recent work in the field has highlighted the microbial community as well as the health benefits of yeast and/or lactic acid bacteria in fermented fruit beverages and other food products [20,21,22,23,24,25], the technical limitations for their industrial upscaling [20], the quality of the ingredients and safety aspects related to traditional fermented foods and beverages [26,27], the new ways to analyze their fermentation processes [28], and the recent trends related to the consumption of fermented fruit-based beverages [29,30,31].
Nevertheless, many of the most widespread fruit-based fermented beverages are alcoholic, i.e., have an alcohol content higher than 1.2% (the lower limit according to EU rules), which must be indicated on their label. Moreover, it has to be considered that alcoholic beverages containing more than 1.2% alcohol by volume (ABV) cannot bear health claims on the label. As such, in order to take advantage of the potentially functional properties of fruit-based beverages, dealcoholization processes are therefore of paramount importance and have been extensively reviewed by Mangindaan et al. [32].
Assuming alcohol content reduction below 1.2% is technically feasible and has already been reviewed, the aim of this work is to highlight the functional potential of fermented fruit beverages in terms of chemical and nutritional profiles and to give an overview on the possible strategies to improve the potential functionality of these beverages. The latest trends on pre-fermentative methods used to optimize the extraction of bioactive compounds are critically assessed, as well as the optimized fermentation and post-fermentation operations, in view of an industrial scale-up.

1.1. Major and Minor Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages

With more than 3.2 million liters consumed every day in China due to its nutritional benefits [33], vinegar is available worldwide in several different assortments. Vinegar’s traditional use dates back to ancient times [34], even if there is no clear information about its origin [35]. Vinegar was defined by the joint commission of the FAO/WHO as “a liquid fit for human consumption, produced from a suitable raw material of agricultural origin, containing starch, sugars or starch and sugars, by the process of double fermentation, alcoholic and acetous, that can contain a specified amount of acetic acid” [36]. At present, wine vinegar is the most widely marketed, although vinegar can be produced from various raw materials [34]. If solely fruits are considered, it can be prepared from pineapple, including pineapple by-products [37,38], persimmon, apple, jujube [39], pomegranate [40], plum, cranberry [41], sour cherry [42], soursop [43], mango, orange, banana [44], and papaya [45]. Initially, juices are typically inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to allow alcoholic fermentation, converting sugars into ethanol under anaerobic conditions. The addition of Acetobacter species is the second stage of fermentation, enabling ethanol oxidation under aerobic conditions and its conversion into acetic acid [33]. The earliest methods used to produce vinegar include the Orléans method, generator method, and submerged culture method [45]. Vinegar is used primarily as an ingredient in food processing due to its taste and aroma [46,47], as a seasoning and preservative [41], as a marinating liquid for meat [48], or in sauces, ketchup, and mayonnaise [33], and recently as an ingredient for beverage formulations [44].
Similarly, beer, which is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide [49], is produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting glucose, maltose, and maltotriose [50]. Fruit beers, primarily popular in craft breweries, are made with the addition of fruit. Their production depends on the seasonality of fruit harvest and is influenced by the risk of microbial contamination due to microorganisms present on the fruit skin [51]. For centuries, fruits were used as beer ingredients, especially in Belgian lambic styles [52]. In Belgium, it is a tradition to add the whole fruit into the beer (lambic fermentation occurs in casks) for the production of cherry lambic (‘Kriek’) or raspberry lambic (‘Framboise’) [53]. In cherry lambic, 150–400 g/L intact sour cherries are added into wooden casks filled with a blend of old and young lambic beer, where the sugar from the fruits passes a secondary fermentation. Fruit addition during the fermentation process might enhance the content of bioactive compounds of beer, in particular polyphenols and carotenoids [54]. The fermentation process of lambics can be divided into four distinct stages: the Enterobacteriaceae phase, the primary fermentation phase, the acidification phase, and the maturation phase. Microorganisms are mainly responsible for the flavor and aroma within each stage [55]. Hanseniaspora uvarum, a wild yeast also known as Kloeckera apiculata, dominates the first stage of fermentation, while the second stage of the fermentation process is dominated by Saccharomyces spp. and in the third stage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A wild yeast often associated with the spoilage of red wines and ciders, Brettanomyces, has positive effects upon flavor characteristics and dominates the final fermentation stage in lambic beer. The fermentation process starts after the wort has been cooled. H. uvarum rapidly reaches its maximum content of 105 cells/mL within the first week of fermentation, but it is quickly overcome by Saccharomyces. H. uvarum can ferment glucose but not maltose or more complex carbohydrates. Consequently, pH drops from 5.1 to 4.6 due to the fast growth of Enterobacteriaceae and H. uvarum and the production of acetic and lactic acids. The following stages of fermentation overlap one another [56]. The third phase of traditional lambic beer production processes is characterized by the growth of lactic acid bacteria that are responsible for the acidification process, which is essential as lambic beer is recognized for its acidity [57]. Many of the lactic acid bacteria present in lambic beer are from the Pediococcus genus. Some strains have beneficial effects, and others can produce a “ropy” surface, creating permanent cloudiness [56,57,58]. The final stage of the process is marked by an increase in the number of yeast cells, Brettanomyces playing an essential role in developing the aromatic and flavor profile of lambic beer [56] by fermenting higher malto-oligosaccharides not fermented by Saccharomyces.
Cider is a fermented beverage with an alcohol level typically in the range 4–10% ABV [59] that recognizes ‘territoriality’ as essential for its appreciation [24]. Alcohol-free cider containing less than 0.5% ABV and low-alcohol cider, with an alcohol content between 0.5 and 1.2% ABV, are also marketed [60]. Traditionally, cider is made from apple, but it can also be made from other types of fruit such as wax apple (or Java apple, Syzygium samarangense), a tropical fruit having many nutritional bioactive compounds and high economic value [61]. Over time, Europe became known as the heart of cider production. In some countries (England, Spain, France, Ireland, and Germany), cider production is particularly abundant and dates back for centuries [60]. Smaller productions are found in countries such as Switzerland, Poland, and Austria [24]. According to the European Cider and Fruit Wine Association, in 2020, Romania was the first small market cider producer with 148.8 hL, followed by Portugal and Bulgaria with about 143 hL [62]. Cider production has also become an important and promising segment of the fruit industry in China, because of the large production of apples in this country [63]. The processing of apple cider involves the following steps: apple conditioning (washing and sorting); apple crushing (small pieces of 4–5 mm thickness); pressing and separating the apple juice; clarification and depectinization; yeast inoculation and alcoholic fermentation; addition of nutrients for the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and malolactic fermentation; stabilization and maturation (i.e., wood aging, optional) [60]. During the process of fermentation and aging, sugars, acids, and pectic and phenolic substances present in the apples [64] are transformed into alcohols (propan-1-ol, iso-pentan-1-ol), organic acids (malic, lactic), and esters (ethyl and butyl lactate, ethyl-2 and ethyl-3-methylbutyrate, ethyl decanoate) [65]. Commercially, a selected strain of Saccharomyces spp. (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) [65] is used for the production of cider, but also other yeast strains were studied, such as Hanseniaspora osmophila and Torulaspora quercuum in co- and sequential fermentation, where the production of organic acids varied depending on the yeast species employed and inoculation method. The simultaneous fermentation resulted in the highest ethanol content because of a more efficient sugar consumption [66]. Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids [67] were able to ferment the juice completely to about 5% ABV.
According to the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, wine is obtained through the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice by yeast, followed by the aging process. The term can be commonly used for all fermented beverages obtained from sweet fruits and vegetables, such as fruit wines, and undistilled alcoholic beverages [68] that are nutritive, flavorful, mild stimulants, and have an alcohol content ranging between 5–13% ABV [69]. These types of wines are made from blackberry (representing a traditional Croatian alcoholic beverage, a source of minerals and polyphenolics) [70], mulberry [71], pineapple and passion fruit [72], mango [73], and mixtures of banana, pawpaw, and watermelon [74]. The techniques used to obtain fruit wines are similar to those for the production of conventional wines. Some differences in the content of sugar and acids can be adjusted by diluting the juice or adding sugar, as well as by testing different yeast strains to select the most effective in different environments [68,72,75].
Kombucha is a refreshing low alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of sweetened black or green tea, inoculated with acetic acid bacteria and osmophilic yeast (“tea fungus”). Given the ascending trends in kombucha consumption, its production was scaled up in recent years [76]. Its fermentation lasts between 7–21 days, and it is recognized for its beneficial nutritional and health effects [77]. Alternative raw materials for kombucha production are spices, fruits such as snake fruit [78] and papaya [79], fruit juices [80], leaves [81,82], coffee [83,84,85], vegetables [86], milk [87], and other food industry by-products and wastes [88].
Other fermented fruit beverages have a more limited diffusion, rendering them “minor” compared to globally known beverages such as vinegar, wine, beer, etc. However, based on raw materials typical of the area of origin, these minor beverages are essential expressions of local traditions. Hardaliye is an indigenous beverage of the Thrace region of Turkey and is produced from red grape juice fermented with crushed black mustard seeds [89]. Ombike is the generic name for a fermented beverage made from wild fruits, including bird plum, buffalo thorn, and makalani palm, prepared in Namibia, where omalunga, a palm wine [90], is also produced. Tepache is a popular beverage in Mexico, prepared by fermenting pineapple peel and sometimes adding other fruits such as orange, apple, and guava [91]. Urwagwa is an alcoholic beverage common in Rwanda, produced from the fermentation of bananas. In Botswana, setopoti and khadi are traditional alcoholic beverages made from the fermentation of watermelons and Grewia flava fruits, respectively [92].
Ultimately, fruit juice fortification with probiotics and/or prebiotics is a challenge and a frontier goal, as juices could combine their specific nutritional effects in addition to providing specific health benefits through probiotic bacteria or prebiotic ingredients [93].

2. Composition and Functional Potential of Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages

Alongside their nutritional properties, fruit-based fermented beverages may show a functional potential related to the content of bioactive compounds, in particular phenolics. The phenolic compounds of fruits can fortify or enhance food or beverage functionality [94], impacting their sensorial, nutritional, and antimicrobial proprieties [20]. Beverages such as fruit juice, beer, and wine are rich in hydroxycinnamic acids [95]. Table 1 shows the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in some fruit-based fermented beverages. Quercetin, from the flavonol class, is found in fruits such as blueberries, strawberries, apple, goji, apricot, and grape and is recognized to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties [96]. The flavonols and their derivatives significantly influence taste characteristics, particularly bitterness and astringency [97].
While vinegar has a complex composition of carbohydrates, organic acids, small traces of ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, amino acids, and peptides, the most abundant organic acids are acetic, lactic, pyruvic, malic, and citric acid [98]. The acetification process has an impact on aroma volatiles, mainly due to oxidative reactions. Furthermore, monoterpenic alcohols are found in orange vinegar, esters in banana vinegar, C13-norisoprenoids in cherry vinegar, and lactones in mango vinegar, indicating that fruit vinegars have different aroma profiles depending on the type of fruit used for the production [44]. Moreover, hydroxymethylfurfural, synthesized by thermal decomposition of reducing sugars [99], has been detected in low amounts in wine vinegar and in concentrations up to 35 mg/L in cherry vinegar and some apple vinegars [100]. The consumption of vinegar has many health benefits, such as an attenuation of cardiac injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity actions [101], a reduction of body weight, body fat mass, and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in obese patients [102], and anti-carcinogenic and antihypertensive effects [46]. Vinegar has been associated with diminished post-prandial glucose response following a high glycemic load meal [103] and presents high antioxidant activity, antimicrobial and antidiabetic effects, and therapeutic properties [33].
Regarding beer, many studies prove that the addition of fruit juice or fruit increases the content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and resveratrol and, consequently, improves the antioxidant activity [54]. Still, a study on goji berries enriched amber ale beer showed an increase in bioactive compounds but did not improve the flavan-3-ol oligomers, which caused colloidal instability [50]. Cornelian cherry beer contains iridoids, which have cardiovascular, hypoglycemic, antihepatotoxic, choleretic, and antispasmodic activities [104]. Similarly, Cornelian cherry beer has high antioxidant properties. The best results, in terms of the degree of fermentation, were obtained when Cornelian cherry juice was added during the primary fermentation of the beer [105].
In fruit-based fermented beverages, the fermentation process enhances the quantity of B-group vitamins [106]. For instance, Lactobacillus reuteri, a Gram-positive bacterium, can thrive on several substrates and produce B12 vitamin and folate [107]. Santos et al. [108] tested the capability of this bacterium to ferment melon juice and obtained a 5-to 10-fold increase in folate amount. As for vitamin B12, it significantly increased from 0.28 to 11.47 mg/100 mL during fermentation of coconut water [109]. However, a decrease of vitamin C throughout the fermentation was observed in a fermented strawberry beverage (from 75.5 mg/100 g fruit to 34 mg/100 mL in strawberry wine) [110], as well as in fermented wax apple juice (from 4.97 mg/100 g to 3.81 mg/100 mL) [61] and fermented pineapple juice (4.52 mg/100 g to 2.95 mg/100 mL) [111].

3. Probiotic and Prebiotic Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages

According to the WHO, probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms able to give, when administered in adequate amounts, many health benefits to the host”. It is also considered that they have a beneficial effect upon health with a minimum of 109 cells per daily dose [119]. Probiotic organisms must have the ability to resist gastric juices, exposure to bile, and proliferate and colonize the digestive tract. The most commonly used probiotic bacteria belong to the heterogeneous group of LAB (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus) and to the genus Bifidobacterium [120], while among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is used [121]. Probiotics can increase the activity of enzymes, improve the intestinal barrier function, generate substances with antibacterial or bactericide effects, can modify the pH, modulate host immune function, intestinal carcinogenesis, cholesterol uptake, and competitive deprivation of pathogenic bacteria [122], alleviate lactose intolerance symptoms, atopic dermatitis symptoms in children, prevent the risk of allergy in infancy, and help with inflammable bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms [123]. As a side effect, the long-term use of probiotics under antibiotic selection pressure could cause antibiotic resistance, and the resistance gene could be transferred to other bacteria [119].
Products that are traditionally considered the best carriers for probiotics are fermented milk products, but nowadays, up to 70% of the world population is affected by lactose intolerance, so a trend to obtain probiotic beverages from cereals, soybeans, and fruits and vegetables is observed. Fruit juices are generally preferred due to their natural content of essential nutrients [121]. The development of nondairy-based probiotic beverages has gained consumer attention due to the need for reducing cholesterol intake as well as frequent allergies/intolerances to dairy products [124,125]. Conversely, nondairy-based probiotic beverages improve the growth of beneficial bacteria, possess antimicrobial effects towards many foodborne pathogens [93,126], and have a pleasant aroma and taste [125]. The most commonly employed probiotics include different strains from Lactobacillus such as L. acidophilus, L. helveticus, L. casei, and L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium such as B. bifidum, B. longum, and B. adolescentis, and other species such as Escherichia coli Nissle, Streptococcus thermophilus, Weissella spp., Propionibacterium spp., Pediococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc spp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii [93]. Commercially, the most preferred species for lactic acid fermented fruits are those belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and the genus Bifidobacterium [127].
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that can impart a beneficial effect to supplemented or indigenous colonic microbiota. According to the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), a prebiotic ingredient has to meet three criteria: resistance to degradation by stomach acid, enzymes, or hydrolysis; fermentation by intestinal microbes; selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms in the gut [128]. Initially, prebiotics were seen as ingredients that could not be digested and positively affected the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacterial species in the colon [129]. Prebiotics include dietary fiber, oligosaccharides such as inulin, and fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). According to Global Market Insights, INC (Delaware, USA), the global prebiotic market is increasing and is expected to surpass USD 8.5 billion by 2024. From the technological point of view, the addition of prebiotics to foods and beverages improves sensory characteristics, such as taste and texture, and enhances the stability of foams, emulsions, and mouthfeel in a vast range of food applications, such as dairy and bakery products [130]. FOS have gained special attention due to their health benefits and sweet taste, very similar to that of sucrose. FOS stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in the digestive tract, decrease serum lipids and total cholesterol, relieve constipations, and improve human health [131]. At low pH and high temperature, the most stable prebiotics are GOS, while inulin and FOS are less stable [132]. Consumption of prebiotics leads to several benefits, which include increased calcium absorption and enhanced bone mineralization during pubertal growth [129], alleviating the symptoms of IBS [132], protecting against Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and inducing weight loss [119].
Several studies have aimed at formulating fruit-based fermented beverages with prebiotic and probiotic activity (Table 2). It has to be highlighted, however, that the functional beverages have to be consumed in large amounts to benefit human health, as the bioactive compounds are found in small quantities, and the daily recommended dose is much higher (Table 3). For example, fermented pomegranate juice should be consumed 2.5 L daily to gain all the benefits of this product [133,134], while sea buckthorn wine should be consumed up to 20 L daily [134,135,136]. Therefore, there is a need for new strategies to improve the functionality of fruit-based fermented beverages.

4. Methods Used to Increase the Extraction Yield of Bioactive Compounds

4.1. Maceration and Decoction

Maceration and decoction are traditional extraction methods that require very simple equipment. Maceration is usually performed at room temperature [151,152], and it is the most employed technique for extracting compounds of interest from plant raw materials in the alcoholic beverage industry [153]. In small scale extraction, the steps used for maceration are grinding the plant material into small particles to increase the surface area, adding the solvent, and finally pressing out or filtrating. Shaking facilitates extraction by increasing diffusion and removing concentrated solution from the sample surface, for bringing new solvent and higher extraction yield [152]. Water, alcohol, or other solvents can be used, depending on the purpose. Wine, for example, is used in the preparation of vermouths, while vinegar might be enriched in bioactive compounds during or after acetic fermentation, with the maceration of herbal extracts or fruits [151]. Susana Gonzalez-Manzano et al. [154] showed that the extraction of flavan-3-ols during maceration reached the highest level at 12.5% ABV, and gallocatechin was primarily extracted from the skin and catechin from the seeds of the grapes.
Decoction consists of boiling a plant matrix in a specific volume of water for a defined time, then cooling and straining or filtering it. Lou et al. [155] observed that the total concentration of phenolics from Crataegus pinnatifida, an organic Chinese hawthorn berry, was significantly higher in decoction (4044–4148 μg/g) than maceration (3398–3792 μg/g). Decoction can provide better accessibility for extracting phenolics by disrupting the plant’s cell wall, releasing phenolic compounds that were conjugated or insoluble bounded.

4.2. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)

The process of extracting or separating one component from the matrix using supercritical fluids as solvents is one of the latest extraction technologies adopted in the industry, which can be used as a preparation step for further analyses or on a larger scale to eliminate unwanted material from a product (e.g., decaffeination) or collect a desired product (e.g., essential oils) [2]. Supercritical fluids (SCF) are produced by heating a gas above its critical temperature or compressing a liquid above its critical pressure and have solvent powers similar to a light hydrocarbon for most solutes. The most widely used gas in food industries is carbon dioxide. The wide range of physical conditions that can be applied make possible the preparation of very ‘light’ extracts, similar to essential oils, or more complex extracts, having a chemical composition comparable with that of the starting plant material, since the extraction process causes no thermal or chemical modifications [153].
Supercritical CO2 can be used for extracting many types of compounds, such as lycopene from watermelon [3], anthocyanins and phenolics from Syzygium cumini fruit pulp and jamun (Indian blackberry) [156], and imperatorin and meranzin from Citrus maxima peel [157]. Temperature and pressure both affect the extraction yield and have to be carefully tested and adjusted [3,156]. Supercritical CO2 can be used for removing ethanol from aqueous solutions and therefore has been proposed for developing a low-alcohol beverage from wine, maintaining the aroma and the antioxidant activity similar to that of the original wine [158]. The same technique has been also used for the stabilization of FOS-rich beverages, maintaining the prebiotic functionality [159].

4.3. Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE)

MAE is a combined extraction technique that uses traditional solvent extraction and the energy of microwaves. Microwave energy is used to heat solvents in contact with solid or liquid samples (or other fresh tissues), thereby partitioning the compounds of interest into the solvent. Microwaves heat the solution directly, and as a result, the temperature gradients are minimal, and the heating rate using microwave radiation is faster [4]. In the case of microwave extraction, mass ingredient and heat actions are targeted toward the exterior of the cells, enhancing the yields of extraction for high-value compounds while reducing the time needed to extract compounds. By comparison, in a conventional process, the heat transfer occurs from the heating medium to the inside of the cells [5].
MAE can be applied to extract several types of substances. For example, anthocyanins and polyphenols have been extracted from raspberry [160], catechin from Arbutus unedo L. fruits [6], pectin from dragon fruit peel [8], and polysaccharides from Camptotheca acuminate fruits, known as wild banana [10]. A comparison of MAE with maceration and ultrasound showed that MAE and maceration were the most effective methods, able to extract 1.7 mg/g and 1.4 mg/g catechin from Arbutus unedo, respectively. MAE reached the maximum extraction at 137 °C in 42 min.
Furthermore, the microwave pretreatment positively affects the total anthocyanin content of hawthorn beverages (from 1.314 mg/100 mL to 2.106 mg/100 mL) [161]. Positive effects of microwave-assisted extraction (1200 W for 10 min, 40 °C) were encountered when applied to the anthocyanin content of Merlot grape wines [13]. Microwaving a peach functional beverage for 1.5 min at 850 W:50 Hz of power determined the retention and stability of bioactive compounds for up to 30 days at 4 °C. It was observed that the pH and the cloud values of the processed juice reduced with storage time, the total soluble solids remaining almost consistent while the TPC decreased rapidly during the storage period [162].

4.4. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE)

As for ultrasound, it can enhance the extraction of nutraceuticals such as phenolics, anthocyanins, and aromatic compounds. The advantages of UAE include reduced extraction time, reduced thermal gradient, small equipment size, rapid control response, increased yield, and selective extraction [152,163].
Prakash Man et al. [9] studied the effects of temperature, power of the ultrasound, time, and solid–liquid ratio in the extraction of bioactive compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel. Increasing the temperature from 30 to 50 °C made the yield of anthocyanins and polyphenols increase due to the greater cavitation, as well as increased solubility and reduced viscosity, which facilitates the solvent to penetrate deeper into the matrix. The extraction yield increased when the duration began to increase from 10 to 20 min and then decreased when the duration was extended. The optimal parameters for the extraction were 20 W for 20 min, a solid–liquid ratio of 1:18.6 g/mL, 50 °C, when were obtained 10.17 mg/100 g of the total anthocyanin content, 100.93 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g total flavonoid content and 546.98 mg GAE/100 g TPC, respectively. The same fruit peel was also used to extract polysaccharides using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The highest extraction yield for polysaccharides was 8.31%, obtained at an extraction duration of 41 min, 110 W, 53 °C, and a solid–liquid ratio of 1:32 g/mL [7].
Ultrasound, alone and/or in combination with other techniques, was reported to affect E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes in apple cider. Moreover, the quality of fruit juice, such as orange, guava, and strawberry, has been affected on a smaller scale [164].
The effect of ultrasonication, pulsed light, and their combined usage on the phenolic profile and the antioxidant activities of lactic-acid-fermented mulberry juice has been assessed [112]. The mulberry juice was ultrasonicated for 15 min, 28 kHz, 60 W, at 5 °C. As for the pulse light treatment, the sample was subjected to light pulses at a pulse width of 360 μs, a frequency of 3 Hz, and delivering radiant energy of 1.213 Jcm−2 pulse−1. An exposure time of 4 s to obtain a sub-lethal energy dose of 7.26 Jcm−2 was employed. The TPC and total anthocyanin concentration significantly increased in the fermented mulberry juice treated with pulsed light and ultrasound.

4.5. Enzyme Assisted Extraction (EAE)

Enzymatic extraction of bioactive compounds from plants is an alternative to conventional solvent-based extraction methods. Enzymes are ideal for assisting in extracting, synthesizing, and modifying complex bioactive compounds of natural origin. This method is based on the inherent ability of enzymes to catalyze reactions with exquisite specificity, region selectivity, and an ability to function under mild processing conditions in aqueous solutions. In general, enzymes have been used to treat the plant material before conventional extraction methods. Various enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases, and hemicellulases, are used to enhance the extraction yield of bioactive compounds from plants by altering the integrity of the cell wall and increasing permeability. In food processing, pectic enzymes are employed industrially for the extraction, clarification, and concentration of fruit juices and to extract several compounds from plant materials [15]. The addition of pectinase as a pre-treatment in red dragon fruit juice, followed by fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii, increased the beverage yield by 16% and enhanced the levels of esters and terpenes, improving aroma profile. Other effects included higher acetic acid production and impairment on the yeast’s ability to metabolize the nitrogen compounds, with a loss of color intensity and a decrease of pigments [165].
The effects of the EAE on the stability of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) anthocyanins in chilled storage at 10 °C for 9 days and extractability yield were tested by Dinkova et al. [166]. The results showed an increase of 43–60% in polyphenol content and 23–37% in anthocyanins, while the antioxidant capacity increased by 35% through enzymatic maceration. A decrease in counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was also observed, as well as that of molds and yeasts at the end of storage, suggesting an inhibition of the microbial growth. The same method, by adding pectinase, was applied to extract anthocyanins from blackberry. An increase in extraction yield was observed with the increase of enzyme loading. Yield also increased by increasing the temperature up to 50 °C and then decreased due to enzyme inactivation [16]. EAE has also been used to extract polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis fruits, at an enzyme concentration of 2.15%, pH 4.2, 55 °C, for 97 min [17]. Moreover, pectinase has been used in the preparation of pear juice made from William Bartlett cultivar [18]. The juice yield ranged between 67.62–90.57% and the clarity from 38–91.1%. The clarity increased significantly with the enzyme concentration and the best results were obtained at 1.9% enzyme concentration, 30 °C, and 2 h incubation. Some disadvantages of EAE, however, are the high price of enzymes, and difficulties in the industrial scale-up, due to different environmental conditions for every enzyme [15].
By using commercial enzymes, Kim and Park [167] enhanced the volatile aromatic compound from Korean black raspberry wines. The wine, treated with a mix of pectinase, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and β-glucosidase, had the highest concentration of aromatic compounds: terpenes 103.1 mg/L, esters 461 mg/L, and the score of fruity and floral aroma in the sensory evaluation.

4.6. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF)

PEF is a novel non-thermal technology that causes the degradation of nutritional and sensory characteristics to a lesser extent than traditional thermal processing. It uses an electrical field in the form of short- or high-voltage pulses applied to a food item placed between two electrodes for a short time, usually in the microsecond scale [168]. The PEF can be used to control the sugar/ethanol conversion rate during fermentation, solving issues caused by some techniques used to reduce the alcohol content in beverages. This is due to the high sugar content in fruits, intensified by global warming, the fermentation of early-harvested fruits, and many such similar matters that have a low impact on the ethanol concentration of the beverage. They may influence the end result by modifying the aroma and mouthfeel of the product [169], stimulating alcoholic fermentation and S. cerevisiae growth while applying direct current (10 mA), alternative current (100 Ma), and electrical potential (0.75 V) to the must [170].
Siddeeg et al. [171] observed the impact of PEF application on the free amino acids, physical and chemical characteristics, and bioactive compounds of alcoholic beverages obtained from date palm fruits. The permeabilization of plant cells can be useful for more effective extraction of bioactives from fruit. The TPC increased from 3.50 mg CE/100 g to 91.90 mg CE/100 g in the highest PEF, while the total carotenoid content increased from 3.10 to 5.15 µg/mL. A higher yield of anthocyanins was revealed in PEF treatment (0.7 kV/cm, for 200 ms and 31 Wh/kg) of Cabernet Sauvignon red grapes [172].
Moderate PEF coupled with Hanseniaspora sp. yeast treatment during cider production significantly increased biomass growth and decreased ethanol yield. PEF can also be used as an alternative to thermal pasteurization of beverages, as it solely modifies a small part of the sensory characteristics. Temperature increases with PEF are low and typically not more than 40 °C, but cooling systems can be attached to the standard equipment if needed. Furthermore, PEF destroys microorganisms by modifying the electric potentials between each side of the membrane [173].

4.7. High Pressure Homogenization (HPH)

HPH is a mechanical process that works to reduce particle size or to lyse cells. Rheological changes have been observed in mango juice after the use of HPH, and in kiwifruit purée HPH improved the appearance of cloudy apple juice to increase consumer acceptability. This technique improved the uniformity and cloud stability due to the reduced size of particles, increased viscosity, and yield stress. The added purée reduced enzymatic browning due to the ascorbic acid creating a saturated and bright yellow color and an improved sensory quality [174]. Morata et al. [175] proved that HPH treatment above 400 MPa applied for 10 min completely destroyed the yeasts.
Similarly, heating and high HPH treatment on litchi juice showed a good ability of HPH to preserve color, flavor acceptance, and antioxidant activity. Moreover, HPH and the heating process offered the opportunity to improve the viability of probiotic cells and extend product quality attributes after 4-week storage at 4 °C [176].
Positive results were also reported on a sulfur dioxide-free wine after using HPH treatments at 500 MPa [177]. The wine presented more significantly the scent of cooked fruit and a spicy aroma, while the untreated wine presented a more pronounced metallic and leathery aroma and a less perceived fruity and floral aroma. After 12 months of storage, the pressurized wine presented notes of an aged wine. The results demonstrated that HPH can influence long-term red wine physic-chemical and sensory characteristics.
However, despite the numerous advantages of recent technologies in obtaining added-value fermented fruit beverages, there are also some disadvantages that beverage industry stakeholders have to consider, which are synthesized in Table 4.

5. Fermentation Types to Enhance the Functionality Potential

5.1. Alcoholic Fermentation

Among fermented beverages, wine results from the complex interactions between yeasts, bacteria, and other fungi that start in vineyards and continue with the fermentation process in the winery. Different yeast species are predominant on the surface of grape skins and in the winery environment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae being the main species responsible for this process. In recent years, non-Saccharomyces species with fermentative abilities were studied, emphasizing their critical role in wine fermentation under specific controlled conditions [201].
Benito et al. [202] studied the possibility of producing red wine using Schizosaccharomyces, which consumed less primary amino nitrogen and had less urea and more pyruvic acid than the Saccharomyces strains.
Interestingly, melatonin, a hormone that modulates physiological processes in humans such as circadian rhythms and the reproductive function, has been recently detected in wine, and its presence has been linked to yeast activity in the fermentation process [203], which was also confirmed by Rodriguez-Naranjo et al. [204], who showed that melatonin is absent in grapes and musts and is formed during alcoholic fermentation. As melatonin is also found in the orange fruit, Fernández-Pachón et al. [205] measured the melatonin content during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and revealed that melatonin content significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0, 3.15 ng/mL, until day 15 when it reached 21.8 ng/mL. Compared to other melatonin contents in fruits, such as banana 0.47 ng/g, apple 0.05–0.16 ng/g, pineapple 0.30 ng/g, and Primoris strawberry 11.26 ng/g [206], the fermented orange juice can be a promising source of this bioactive compound. It can also provide a rich source of carotenoids and has health effects similar to those of the orange juice, with a higher content of total carotenoid and provitamin A (6.65 mg/L and 90.57 retinol activity equivalents per liter of juice (RAEs/L) than the non-fermented orange juice (5.37 mg/L and 75.32 RAEs/L) [207]. Moreover, the potential bioavailability of flavonoids increases during fermentation due to the high content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside, which is twofold higher at the end of the fermentation process; the same ascendant trend was observed for the antioxidant activity [208].

5.2. Acetic Fermentation

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, obligate aerobes commonly known as vinegar-producing microorganisms. The AAB, in general, can oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and glucose to gluconic acid [209] and are currently found based on phylogeny, physiology, and ecology in the Acetobacteraceae family, class Alphaproteobacteria [210]. AAB are often found on flowers, plants, and fruits, as these aerobic environments are rich in carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, and/or ethanol, allowing a specific respiratory chain to rapidly and incompletely oxidize these substrates into organic acids for energy production. Acidification of the environment prevents the growth of competitive bacteria. These physiological characteristics explain the occurrence of AAB and underline their role in producing diverse fermented foods and beverages such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa [57]. The species most frequently reported in vinegar production comprise Acetobacter species such as Acetobacter cerevisiae, A. malorum, and A. pasteurianus, Gluconacetobacter species such as G. entanii, G. liquefaciens, and Gluconobacter oxydans, and Komagataeibacter species such as K. hansenii, K. intermedius, K. medellinensis, and K. oboediens [211].
Acetic fermentation is also an excellent method for transforming by-products into value-added products. Giuffrè et al. [212] used acetic fermentation to valorize bergamot (Citrus bergamia) peel and juice. Limonene, a compound exhibiting antioxidant activity, was found in high contents (0.4–2.04 mg/L) in the vinegar obtained. The TPC varied from 241 to 1953 mg/L and chlorogenic acid between 2.95–58.51 mg/L.

5.3. Lactic Fermentation

Leuconostoc spp., Lactococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Streptococcus thermophilus are examples of LAB that can convert sugars into lactic acid. Lactic acid inhibits the growth of subsequent and potentially harmful bacteria of other species and creates favorable conditions for yeast activity, a property utilized in the production of wine and beer [213]. In winemaking, LAB are present throughout all stages, and they can either enhance or diminish the quality of wine through malolactic fermentation and affect the organoleptic properties of the final product. The concentration of LAB during malolactic fermentation reaches approximately 107 CFU/mL, which indicates their importance in winemaking. The density of LAB in the initial phases of winemaking ranges from about 103 to 104 CFU/m. The most abundant are Lactobacillus hilgardii, L. plantarum, L. casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus damnosus, while less common species include Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus brevis [214].
Lactic fermentation can be used in the beverage industry to enhance antioxidant and antimicrobial properties or produce probiotic beverages. Muhialdin et al. [215] tested the effect of dragon fruit juice fermentation with L. plantarum on consumer acceptability and biological activity of the final product. The results show that fermentation at 37 °C for 48 h enhanced the antibacterial activity of fermented dragon fruit juice threefold. As per acceptability, consumers preferred the mixed dragon fruit fermented juice with fresh juice in the 1:9 ratio, as the fermented juice was too sour, with low pH (3.49). Additionally, this beverage had an extended shelf life to 3 months with no detected odors, color, and taste modifications compared to the fresh dragon fruit juice, which developed an unpleasant aroma and taste only after 1 month of storage at 8 °C.
LAB can be used to prolong shelf life up to six months for fresh cantaloupe juice [216]. The juice was fermented with L. plantarum for 48 h. After fermentation, the antimicrobial activity increased due to several bioactive metabolites and demonstrated complete inhibition towards Aspergillus flavus. The ratio of 20:80 fermented cantaloupe juice to fresh juice showed stable shelf life and high consumer acceptability.
A significant increase in the concentration of ellagic acid, known as a potent antioxidant and anti-tumor compound [217], was noticed during the fermentation of pomegranate juice by L. plantarum, which can degrade tannins by a tannin acylhydrolase named tannase, inhibiting the polymerization of the aromatic compounds and juice browning. Tannase can also modify the phenolic composition of juices and improve their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities [20]. Papaya juices fermented by L. acidophilus and L. plantarum were compared in organic acids, volatile compounds, and antioxidant capacities [218]. The DDPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of L. plantarum fermented juice were significantly higher than L. acidophilus fermented juice.

5.4. Symbiotic Fermentation

Symbiosis, or the coexistence of various microorganisms, such as LAB and AAB or yeasts and molds, contributes to traditional fermentation (brewing). Auxotrophy and optimum oxido-reduction potential of microorganisms are essential factors for their symbiotic interaction. As for LAB, they usually require different types of nutrients, such as amino acids and vitamins. In traditional fermentation environments, some nutrients are provided to LAB using yeasts and kōji molds. LAB and yeasts usually favor anaerobic environments, while kōji molds and AAB absolutely require oxygen for growth. Therefore, in traditional fermentation environments, kōji molds and AAB are usually found on surface areas, and LAB and yeasts are typically localized in internal areas [219].
Symbiosis in the forms of mutualism or commensalism is widespread in fermented foods, for example, in yoghurt, milk kefir, or sourdough [220]. A type of symbiotic fermentation is one that uses kefir grains. Kefir grains are white or yellow irregular granules of protein and a polysaccharide matrix named kefiran. The starter culture consists of a symbiotic consortium of several yeasts and bacteria. LAB are represented by the genera of Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus; the yeasts include Saccharomyches, Zygosaccharomyces spp., Candida, Pichia, and Dekkera [20]. To date, a great variety of fruits such as pomegranate [221], apple [222], and orange [223] have been used to produce functional beverages using kefir grains.
Similarly, a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY) is used for the production of kombucha. SCOBY mainly contains acetic acid bacteria (AAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and yeasts. Komagataeibacter (K. xylinus, K. kombuchae), Acetobacter (A. aceti, A. pasteurianus, A. nitrogenifigens), and Gluconacetobacter (G. sacchari) are major AAB strains, while strains of Saccharomyces (S. cerevisiae) and non-Saccharomyces (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces spp., Dekkera spp., and Brettanomyces spp.) are present in lower amounts. Recent research successfully tested the isolates of Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora vineae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis [150] and Lachancea fermentati strains [224] from kombucha to produce alcohol-free beer and low alcohol beer, respectively.
Another example of a symbiotic product is a type of plum juice containing three different types of probiotics (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefyr, and Saccharomyces boulardii) and oligosaccharides, which showed antibacterial activity against diarrhea-causing pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, and Staphylococcus aureus [225]. In this range, another symbiotic beverage has been formulated using probiotics and prebiotics. As a raw material, coconut water was used, Lactobacillus rhamnosus as a probiotic, and inulin as a source of soluble fiber. The obtained beverage presented good sensory acceptance, an amount of 82 × 108 CFU/mL of L. rhamnosus, 15 g of inulin, and a shelf life of 15 days in refrigeration conditions.

6. Future Trends and Conclusive Remarks

One of the emerging trends in the food and beverage industry is reusing by-products and waste, in the perspective of a circular economy. Fruit-based fermented beverages, a convenient and rich source of bioactive compounds, can work as carriers to deliver health-benefiting components derived from fruit by-products [226]. The management of fruit waste and/or by-products is essential because they represent a valuable resource of compounds that can be reused (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols, and dietary fibers) [227]. Waste or by-products can also be used as raw material, decreasing the volume of food waste accumulated in landfills [228]. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in TPC and/or antioxidant activity by using by-products from pomegranate, orange, banana, grape, and tamarind in beverages. For instance, a beverage made from fresh orange juice with added banana peel extract (500 mg/100 mL) reported a 21 and 150% increase for DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively, compared to the non-fortified juice [226]. Moreover, pineapple residues (100 g/kg peel) can be used to produce fermented alcoholic beverages without quality loss or negative interference with the chemical quality of the fermented products [228].
In conclusion, fermentation has shown excellent potential for the production of fruit-based beverages directly from fruits or even from their waste and by-products. Optimized fermentation processes allow for enrichment in specific bioactive compounds (typically phenolic compounds and vitamin C), serving the interest of both industry and consumers. Furthermore, current emerging technologies, based on supercritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasound, enzymes, PEF, and HPH, represent another tool to increase the extraction yield of bioactive compounds.
The perception that beverages made with natural ingredients are healthier is increasing among European consumers. It is imperative to address fermented fruit-based beverages, considering consumer trends, preferences, and needs. Moreover, there is a great interest globally in consuming functional non-dairy fermented beverages. Recent studies have proved the functionality of fruit-based beverages, based on each nutritional or functional compound (namely phenolic compounds, vitamins, prebiotics, and probiotics). Therefore, these beverages represent a convenient, easily assimilable source that can be integrated within a daily diet.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.-L.K., C.R.P., and T.E.C.; writing—original draft preparation, A.-L.K., C.R.P., E.M., L.C.S., C.D., C.B.-U., and T.E.C.; writing—review and editing, E.M., T.E.C., L.C.S., C.D., A.P., and H.Z.; supervision, E.M., T.E.C., A.P., and H.Z.; funding acquisition, E.M. and T.E.C. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.


The support given by Mihaela Mihai in language editing is highly appreciated by the authors.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Laureys, D.; De Vuyst, L. Microbial species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of water kefir fermentation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2014, 80, 2564–2572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  2. Sapkale, G.N.; Patil, S.M.; Surwase, U.S.; Bhatbhage, P.K. Supercritical Fluid Extraction: A Review. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 2010, 8, 729–743. [Google Scholar]
  3. Vaughn, K.; Clausen, E.; King, J.; Howard, L. Extraction conditions affecting supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of lycopene from watermelon. Bioresour. Technol. 2008, 99, 7835–7841. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Llompart, M.; Garcia-Jares, C.; Celeiro, M.; Dagnac, T. Extraction|Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, 3rd ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2019; pp. 67–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Gomez, L.; Tiwari, B.K.; Garcia-Vaquero, M. Emerging extraction techniques: Microwave-assisted extraction. In Sustainable Seaweed Technologies, 1st ed.; Torres, M.D., Kraan, S., Dominguez, H., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2020; pp. 207–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Albuquerque, B.R.; Prieto, M.A.; Barreiro, M.F.; Rodrigues, A.; Curran, T.P.; Barros, L.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Catechin-based extract obtained from Arbutus unedo L. fruits using maceration/microwave/ultrasound extraction techniques. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2017, 95, 404–415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  7. Maran, J.P.; Priya, N. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2014, 70, 530–536. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Maran, J.P.; Sivakumar, V.; Thirugnanasambandham, K.; Sridhar, R. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruits rinds. Carbohydr. Polym. 2014, 101, 786–791. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Maran, J.P.; Manikandan, S.; Nivetha, V.C.; Dinesh, R. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel using central composite face centered response surface design. Arab. J. Chem. 2017, 10, 1145–1157. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  10. Hu, W.; Zhao, Y.Z.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, C.; Hu, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, Z.; Yuan, S.; Chen, Y.; et al. Microwave-assisted extraction, physicochemical characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Camptotheca acuminata fruits. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 133, 127–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Perez-Grijalva, B.; Herrera-Sotero, M.; Mora-Escobedo, R.; Zebadua-Garcia, J.C.; Silva-Hernandez, E.; Oliart-Ros, R.; Perez-Cruz, C.; Guzman-Geronimo, R. Effect of microwave and ultrasound on bioactive compounds and microbiological quality of blackberry juice. LWT 2018, 87, 47–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Siguemoto, E.S.; Gut, J.A.W.; Martinez, A.; Rodrigo, D. Inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice by microwave and conventional thermal processing. IFSET 2018, 45, 84–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  13. Casassa, L.F.; Sari, S.E.; Bolcato, E.A.; Fanzone, M.L. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Applied to Merlot Grapes with Contrasting Maturity Levels: Effects on Phenolic Chemistry and Wine Color. Fermentation 2019, 5, 15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  14. Chan, C.-H.; Yusoff, R.; Ngoh, G.-C.; Wai-Lee Kung, F. Microwave-assisted extractions of active ingredients from plants. J. Chromatogr. A 2011, 1218, 6213–6225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Puri, M.; Sharma, D.; Barrow, C.J. Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactives from plants. Trends Biotechnol. 2011, 30, 37–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Gong, H.; Qi, L.; Yang, Z. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) juice using response surface methodology. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2014, 8, 841–848. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  17. You, Q.; Yin, X.; Zhao, Y. Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis. Carbohydr. Polym. 2013, 98, 607–610. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Gani, G.; Naik, H.R.; Jan, N.; Bashir, O.; Hussain, S.Z.; Rather, A.H.; Reshi, M.; Amin, T. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of pear juice prepared through pectinase enzyme-assisted extraction from William Bartlett variety. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2021, 15, 743–757. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Claus, H.; Mojsov, K. Enzymes for wine fermentation: Current and perspective applications. Fermentation 2018, 4, 52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  20. Ayed, L.; M’hir, S.; Hamdi, M. Microbiological, Biochemical, and Functional Aspects of Fermented Vegetable and Fruit Beverages. J. Chem. 2020, 2020, 5790432. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Melini, F.; Melini, V.; Luziatelli, F.; Ficca, A.G.; Ruzzi, M. Health-Promoting Components in Fermented Foods: An Up-to-Date Systematic Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  22. Feng, Y.; Zhang, M.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Gao, Z. Recent research process of fermented plant extract: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2017, 65, 40–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Fiorda, F.A.; de Melo Pereira, G.V.; Thomaz-Soccol, V.; Rakshit, S.K.; Pagnoncelli, M.G.B.; Vandenberghe, L.P.S.; Soccol, C.R. Microbiological, biochemical, and functional aspects of sugary kefir fermentation—A review. Food Microbiol. 2017, 66, 86–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Cousin, F.J.; Le Guellec, R.; Schlusselhuber, M.; Dalmasso, M.; Laplace, J.-M.; Cretenet, M. Microorganisms in fermented apple beverages: Current knowledge and future directions. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  25. Behera, S.S.; Panda, S.K. Ethnic and industrial probiotic foods and beverages: Efficacy and acceptance. Cur. Opin. Food Sci. 2020, 32, 29–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Anal, A.K. Quality ingredients and safety concerns for traditional fermented foods and beverages from Asia: A review. Fermentation 2019, 5, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  27. Žuntar, I.; Petric, Z.; Bursać Kovačević, D.; Putnik, P. Safety of probiotics: Functional fruit beverages and nutraceuticals. Foods 2020, 9, 947. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Rizo, J.; Guillén, D.; Farrés, A.; Díaz-Ruiz, G.; Sánchez, S.; Wacher, C.; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R. Omics in traditional vegetable fermented foods and beverages. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nut. 2020, 60, 791–809. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Chaiyasut, C.; Sivamaruthi, B.S.; Makhamrueang, N.; Peerajan, S.; Kesika, P. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand. Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 38, 299–309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  30. Salanță, L.C.; Coldea, T.E.; Ignat, M.V.; Pop, C.R.; Tofană, M.; Mudura, E.; Borșa, A.; Pasqualone, A.; Anjos, O.; Zhao, H. Functionality of special beer processes and potential health benefits. Processes 2020, 8, 1613. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Jimborean, M.A.; Salanță, L.C.; Trusek, A.; Pop, C.R.; Tofană, M.; Mudura, E.; Coldea, T.E.; Farcaș, A.; Ilieș, M.; Pașca, S.; et al. Drinking behavior, taste preferences and special beer perception among Romanian university students: A qualitative assessment research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Mangindaan, D.; Khoiruddin, K.; Wenten, I.G. Beverage dealcoholization processes: Past, present, and future. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 71, 36–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Ho, C.W.; Lazim, A.M.; Fazry, S.; Zaki, U.K.H.H.; Lim, S.J. Varieties, production, composition and health benefits of vinegars: A review. Food Chem. 2017, 221, 1621–1630. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Ubeda, C.; Callejon, R.M.; Hidalgo, C.; Torija, M.J.; Mas, A.; Troncoso, A.M.; Morales, M.L. Determination of major volatile compounds during the production of fruit vinegars by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Food Res. Int. 2011, 44, 259–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Yalçin, O.; Tekgündüz, C.; Öztürk, M.M.; Tekgündüz, E. Investigation of the traditional organic vinegars by UV-VIS spectroscopy and rheology techniques. Spectrochim. Acta A 2021, 246, 118987. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1987. Draft European Regional Standard for Vinegar. Rome, Italy. Available online: (accessed on 10 October 2021).
  37. Mohamad, N.E.; Yeap, S.K.; Lim, K.L.; Yusof, H.M.; Beh, B.K.; Tan, S.W.; Ho, W.Y.; Sharifuddin, S.A.; Jamaluddin, A.; Long, K.; et al. Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. Chin. Med. 2015, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  38. Roda, A.; Lucini, L.; Torchio, F.; Dordoni, R.; De Faveri, D.M.; Lambri, M. Metabolite profiling and volatiles of pineapple wine and vinegar obtained from pineapple waste. Food Chem. 2017, 229, 734–742. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Ren, M.; Wang, X.; Tian, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, B.; Song, X.; Zhang, J. Characterization of organic acids and phenolic compounds of cereal vinegars and fruit vinegars in China. J. Food Process. Pres. 2017, 41, e12937. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Ordoudi, S.A.; Mantzouridou, F.; Daftsiou, E.; Malo, C.; Hatzidimitiou, E.; Nenadis, N.; Tsimidou, M.Z. Pomegranate juice functional constituents after alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation. J. Funct. Food. 2014, 8, 161–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Lin, J.T.; Liu, S.C.; Shen, Y.; Yang, D.J. Comparison of various preparation methods for determination of organic acids in fruit vinegars with a simple ion-exclusion liquid chromatography. Food Anal. Method. 2011, 4, 531–539. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Özen, M.; Özdemir, N.; Filiz, B.E.; Budak, N.H.; Kök-Taș, T. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Vinegars produced from fresh fruit or juice concentrate: Bioactive compounds, volatile aroma compounds and antioxidant capacities. Food Chem. 2020, 309, 125664. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Ho, C.W.; Lazim, A.M.; Fazry, S.; Zaki, U.K.H.H.; Lim, S.J. Effects of fermentation time and ph on soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production towards its chemical compositions. Sains Malays. 2017, 46, 1505–1512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Coelho, E.; Geenisheva, Z.; Oliveira, J.M.; Teixeira, J.A.; Domingue, L. Vinegar production from fruit concentrates: Effect on volatile composition and antioxidant activity. J. Food Sci. Technol. Mys. 2017, 54, 4112–4122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  45. Kong, C.T.; Ho, C.W.; Alvin, L.J.W.; Iazim, A.; Fazry, S.; Lim, S.J. Chemical changes and optimisation of acetous fermentation time and mother of vinegar concentration in the production of vinegar-like fermented papaya beverage. Sains Malays. 2018, 47, 2017–2026. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Samad, A.; Azlan, A.; Ismail, A. Therapeutic effects of vinegar: A review. Cur. Opin. Food Sci. 2016, 8, 56–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Ozturk, I.; Caliskan, O.; Tornuk, F.; Ozcan, N.; Yalcin, H.; Baslar, M.; Sagdic, O. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, mineral, volatile, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of traditional home-made Turkish vinegars. LWT 2015, 63, 144–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Sengun, I.; Turp, G.Y.; Cicek, S.N.; Avci, T.; Ozturk, B.; Kilic, G. Assessment of the effect of marination with organic fruit vinegars on safety and quality of beef. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2021, 336, 108904. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Salanță, L.C.; Coldea, T.E.; Ignat, M.V.; Pop, C.R.; Tofană, M.; Mudura, E.; Borșa, A.; Pasqualone, A.; Zhao, H. Non-alcoholic and craft beer production and challenges. Processes 2020, 8, 1382. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Ducruet, J.; Rebenaque, P.; Diserens, S.; Kosinska-Cagnazzo, A.; Heritier, I.; Andlauer, W. Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries—The effect on bioactive compound content and sensorial properties. Food Chem. 2017, 226, 109–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Fanari, M.; Forteschi, M.; Sanna, M.; Piu, P.P.; Porcu, M.C.; D’hallewin, G.; Secchi, N.; Zinellu, M.; Pretti, L. Pilot plant production of craft fruit beer using Ohmic-treated fruit puree. J. Food Process. Pres. 2020, 44, 44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Prasad, M.P. In-vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties of fermented fruit beer samples. Int. J. Sci. Res. 2014, 3, 1545–1550. [Google Scholar]
  53. Martinez, A.; Vegara, S.; Marti, N.; Valero, M.; Saura, D. Physicochemical characterization of special persimmon fruit beers using bohemian pilsner malt as a base. J. Inst. Brew. 2017, 123, 319–327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  54. Nardini, M.; Garaguso, I. Characterization of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits beer. Food Chem. 2020, 305, 125437. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. De Roos, J.; De Vuyst, L. Microbial acidification, alcoholization, and aroma production during spontaneous lambic beer production. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2018, 99, 25–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  56. Witrick, K.; Pitts, E.R.; O’Keefe, F.S. Analysis of Lambic beer volatiles during aging using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). Beverages 2020, 6, 31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. De Roos, J.; De Vuyst, L. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2018, 49, 115–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. Verachtert, H.; Derdelinckx, G. Belgian acidic beers, Daily reminiscences of the Past. Cerevisiae 2014, 38, 121–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Sugrue, M.; Dando, R. Cross-modal influence of color from product and packaging alters perceived flavour of cider. J. Inst. Brew. 2018, 124, 254–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  60. Guiné, R.P.F.; Barroca, M.J.; Coldea, T.E.; Bartkiene, E.; Anjos, O. Apple fermented products: An overview of technology properties and health effects. Processes 2021, 9, 223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Venkatachalam, K.; Techakanon, C.; Thitithanakul, S. Impact of the ripening stage of wax apples on chemical profiles of juice and cider. ACS Omega 2018, 3, 6710–6718. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  62. AICV European Cider Trends 2020 Report. Available online: (accessed on 15 July 2021).
  63. Ye, M.; Yue, T.; Yuan, Y. Evolution of polyphenols and organic acids during the fermentation of apple cider. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2014, 94, 2951–2957. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Villar, A.; Vadillo, J.; Santos, I.; Gorritxategi, E.; Mabe, J.; Arnaiz, A.; Fernandez, L.A. Cider fermentation process monitoring by Vis-Nir sensor system and chemometrics. Food Chem. 2017, 221, 100–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Jarvis, B. Cider (Cyder; Hard Cider). In Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, 2nd ed.; Batt, C.A., Tortorello, M.-L., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2014; Volume 1, pp. 437–443. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Wei, J.; Zhang, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Guo, H.; Ju, H.; Wang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Yue, T. Chemical composition, sensorial properties, and aroma-active compounds of ciders fermented with Hanseniaspora osmophila and Torulaspora quercuum in co- and sequential fermentation. Food Chem. 2020, 306, 125623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Magalhães, F.; Krogerus, K.; Vidgren, V.; Snadell, M.; Gibson, B.R. Improved cider fermentation performance and quality with newly generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae×Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2017, 44, 1203–1213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  68. Akubor, P. Characterization of fruit wines from baobab (Adansonia digitata), pineapple (Ananas sativus) and carrot (Daucus carota) tropical fruits. Asian J. Biotechnol. Bioresour. Technol. 2017, 1, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Swami, S.B.; Thakor, N.; Divate, A.D. Fruit wine production: A review. J. Food Res. Techn. 2014, 2, 93–100. [Google Scholar]
  70. Klarić, D.A.; Klarići, I.; Mornar, A.; Velić, N.; Velić, D. Assessment of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of blackberry wines. Foods 2020, 9, 1623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. Wang, C.-Y.; Liu, Y.W.; Jia, J.Q.; Sivakumar, T.R.; Fan, T.; Gui, Z.Z. Optimization of fermentation process for preparation of mulberry fruit wine by response surface methodology. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2013, 7, 227–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Chilaka, C.A.; Uchechukwu, N.; Obidiegwu, J.; Akpor, O.B. Evaluation of the efficiency of yeast isolates from palmwine in diverse fruit wine production. Afr. J. Food Sci. 2010, 4, 764–774. [Google Scholar]
  73. Pino, J.; Oscar, Q. Analysis of volatile compounds of mango wine. Food Chem. 2011, 125, 1141–1146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Ogodo, A.C.; Ugbogu, O.; Ugbogu, E.A.; Stephen, E.C. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Springer Plus 2015, 4, 683. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  75. Duarte, W.F.; Dias, D.R.; de Melo Pereira, G.V.; Gervasio, I.M.; Schwan, R.F. Indigenous and inoculated yeast fermentation of gabiroba (Campomanesia pubescens) pulp for fruit wine production. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 36, 557–569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Jayabalan, R.; Waisundara, V.Y. 12—Kombucha as a Functional Beverage; Grumezescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Functional and Medicinal Beverages; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019; pp. 413–446. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Villarreal-Soto, S.A.; Beaufort, S.; Bouajila, J.; Souchard, J.-P.; Taillandier, P. Understanding Kombucha tea fermentation: A review. J. Food Sci. 2018, 83, 580–588. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Zubaidah, E.; Dewantari, F.J.; Novitasari, F.R.; Srianta, I.; Blanc, P.J. Potential of snake fruit (Salacca zalacca (Gaerth.) Voss) for the development of a beverage through fermentation with the Kombucha consortium. Biocatal. Agric. 2018, 13, 198–203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  79. Sharifudin, S.A.; Ho, W.Y.; Yeap, S.K.; Abdullah, R.; Koh, S.P. Fermentation and characterisation of potential kombucha cultures on papaya-based substrates. LWT 2021, 151, 112060. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Akbarirad, H.; Assadi, M.M.; Pourahmad, R.; Khaneghah, A.M. Employing of the different fruit juices substrates in vinegar Kombucha preparation. Curr. Nut. Food Sci. 2017, 13, 13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Rahmani, R.; Beaufort, S.; Villarreal-Soto, S.A.; Taillandier, P.; Bouajila, J.; Debouba, M. Kombucha fermentation of African mustard (Brassica tournefortii) leaves: Chemical composition and bioactivity. Food Biosci. 2019, 30, 100414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  82. Vázquez-Cabral, B.D.; Rocha-Guzmán, N.E.; Gallegos-Infante, J.A.; González-Herrera, S.M.; González-Laredo, R.F.; Moreno-Jiménez, M.R.; Córdova-Moreno, I.T.S. Chemical and sensory evaluation of a functional beverage obtained from infusions of oak leaves (Quercus resinosa) inoculated with the Kombucha consortium under different processing conditions. Nutrafoods 2014, 13, 169–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Zofia, N.-Ł.; Aleksandra, Z.; Tomasz, B.; Martyna, Z.-D.; Magdalena, Z.; Zofia, H.-B.; Tomasz, W. Effect of Fermentation Time on Antioxidant and Anti-Ageing Properties of Green Coffee Kombucha Ferments. Molecules 2020, 25, 5394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  84. Watawana, M.; Jayawardena, N.; Waisundara, V. Enhancement of the functional properties of coffee through fermentation by “tea fungus” ( Kombucha). J. Food Process. Preserv. 2015, 39, 2596–2603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Bueno, F.; Chouljenko, A.; Sathivel, S. Development of coffee kombucha containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei: Gastrointestinal simulations and DNA microbial analysis. LWT 2021, 142, 110980. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Aspiyanto, S.; Iskandar, J.M.; Melanie, H.; Maryati, Y.; Lotulung, P.D. Characteristic of fermented spinach (Amaranthus spp.) polyphenol by kombucha culture for antioxidant compound. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Applied Chemistry (ISAC), Jakarta, Indonesia, 23–24 October 2017; Volume 1803. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Malbaša, R.; Vitas, J.; Lončar, E.; Kravić, S. Influence of fermentation temperature on the content of fatty acids in low energy milk-based kombucha products. Acta Period. Technol. 2011, 42, 81–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Malbaša, R.; Lončar, E.; Djurić, M. Comparison of the products of Kombucha fermentation on sucrose and molasses. Food Chem. 2008, 106, 1039–1045. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Kabak, B.; Dobson, A.D.W. An introduction to the traditional fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2011, 51, 248–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  90. Misihairabgwi, J.; Cheikhyoussef, A. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia. J. Ethn. Foods 2017, 4, 145–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Perez-Armendariz, B.; Cardoso-Ugarte, G.A. Traditional fermented beverages in Mexico: Biotechnological, nutritional, and functional approaches. Int. Food Res. J. 2020, 136, 109307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  92. Motlhanka, K.; Zhou, N.; Lebani, K. Microbial and chemical diversity of traditional non-cereal based alcoholic beverages of Sub-Saharan Africa. Beverages 2018, 4, 36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  93. Patel, A.R. Probiotic fruit and vegetable juices-recent advances and future perspective. Int. Food Res. J. 2017, 24, 1850–1857. [Google Scholar]
  94. Sun-Waterhouse, D. The development of fruit-based functional foods targeting the health and wellness market: A review. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2011, 46, 899–920. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Russel, W.; Duthie, G. Plant secondary metabolites and gut health: The case for phenolic acids. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2011, 70, 389–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  96. Štochmal’ova, A.; Sirotkin, A.; Kadasi, A.; Alexa, R. Physiological and medical effects of plant flavonoid quercetin. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Food Sci. 2013, 2, 1915–1926. [Google Scholar]
  97. Das, A.M.; Goud, V.V.; Das, C. Phenolic compounds as functional ingredients in beverages. In Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages; Grumuzescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019; Volume 14, pp. 285–323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Ji-Yong, S.; Xiao-Bo, Z.; Xiao-Wei, H.; Jie-Wen, Z.; Yanxiao, L.; Limin, H.; Jianchun, Z. Rapid detecting total acid content and classifying different types of vinegar based on near infrared spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machine. Food Chem. 2013, 138, 192–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Choudhary, A.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.; Majid, I.; Aggarwal, P.; Suri, S. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation, occurrence and potential health concerns: Recent developments. Toxin Rev. 2020, 1–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Theobald, A.; Müller, A.; Anklam, E. Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in vinegar sam-ples by HPLC. J. Agr. Food Chem. 1998, 46, 1850–1854. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Bounihi, A.; Bitam, A.; Bouazza, A.; Yargui, L.; Koceir, E.A. Fruit vinegars attenuate cardiac injury via anti inflammatory and antiadiposity action in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Pharm. Biol. 2017, 55, 43–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  102. Bouazza, A.; Bitam, A.; Amiali, M.; Bounihi, A.; Yargui, L.; Koceir, E.A. Effect of fruit vinegar on liver damage and oxidative stress in high-fat-fed rats. Pharm. Biol 2016, 54, 260–265. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  103. Shahidi, F.; McDonald, J.; Chandrasekara, A.; Zhong, Y. Phytochemicals of foods, beverages and fruit vinegars: Chemistry and health effects. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2008, 17, 380–382. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  104. Danielewski, M.; Matuszewska, A.; Nowak, B.; Kucharska, A.Z.; Sozanski, T. The Effects of natural iridoids and anthocyanins on selected parameters of liver and cardiovascular system functions. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2020, 2735790. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  105. Kawa-Rygielska, J.; Adamenko, K.; Kucharska, A.Z.; Prorok, P.; Piorecki, N. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of Cornelian cherry beer. Food Chem. 2019, 281, 147–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  106. Septembre-Malaterre, A.; Remize, F.; Poucheret, P. Fruits and vegetables, as a source of nutritional compounds and phytochemical: Changes in bioactive compounds during lactic fermentation. Food Res. Int. 2018, 104, 86–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. LeBlanc, J.G.; Milani, C.; Savoy de Giori, G.; Sesma, F.; van Sinderen, D.; Ventura, M. Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: A gut microbiota perspective. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2013, 24, 160–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. Santos, F.; Wegkamp, A.; De Vos, W.; Smid, E.; Hugenholyz, J. High-level folate production in fermented foods by the B12 producer Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1112. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2018, 74, 3291–3294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  109. Giri, S.S.; Sukumaran, S.; Sen, S.S.; Park, S.C. Use of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus casei L4, in the Preparation of fermented coconut water beverage. Front. Microbiol. 2018, 9, 1976. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Klopotek, Y.; Otto, K.; Böhm, V. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, an antioxidant capacity. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 5640–5646. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. AdebayoTayo, B.; Akpeji, S. Probiotic viability, physicochemical and sensory properties of probiotic pineapple juice. Fermentation 2016, 2, 20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Kwaw, E.; Ma, Y.; Tchabo, W.; Apaliya, M.T.; Sackey, A.S.; Wu, M.; Xiao, L. Impact of ultrasonication and pulsed light treatments on phenolics concentration and antioxidant activities of lactic-acid-fermented mulberry juice. LWT 2018, 92, 61–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  113. Bortolini, D.G.; Benvenutti, L.; Demiate, I.M.; Nogueira, A.; Alberti, A.; Zielinski, A.A.F. A new approach to the use of apple pomace in cider making for the recovery of phenolic compounds. LWT 2020, 126, 109316. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Benvenutti, L.; Bortolini, D.G.; Nogueira, A.; Zielinski, A.A.F.; Alberti, A. Effect of addition of phenolic compounds recovered from apple pomace over cider quality. LWT 2019, 100, 348–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  115. Callemien, D.; Collin, S. Structure, Organoleptic Properties, quantification methods, and stability of phenolic compounds in beer-a review. Food Rev. Int. 2009, 26, 1–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Li, Z.C.; Chi, L.Z.; Zhu, J.K.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.J.; He, P.G.; Fang, Y.Z. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in blueberry wine by CE-AD. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2011, 22, 1237–1240. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Fan, L.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Zhang, L.; Li, Y.; Zhou, J. Copigmentation effects of phenolics on color enhancement and stability of blackberry wine residue anthocyanins: Chromaticity, kinetics and structural simulation. Food Chem. 2019, 275, 299–308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  118. Mudnic, I.; Budimir, D.; Modun, D.; Gunjaca, G.; Mekinić, I.G.; Sskroza, D.; Katalinic, V.; Ljubenkov, I.; Boban, M. Antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of blackberry and grape wines. J. Med. Food 2012, 15, 315–321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  119. Dini, I. An overview of functional beverages. In Functional and Medicinal Beverages; Grumezescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019; Volume 11, pp. 1–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. Tamang, J.P.; Shin, D.; Jing, S.-J.; Chae, S.-E. Functional properties of microorganisms in fermented foods. Front. Microbiol. 2016, 7, 578. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  121. Perricone, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Altieri, C.; Sinigaglia, M.; Corbo, M.R. Challenges for the production of probiotic fruit juices. Beverages 2015, 1, 95–103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  122. Nazhand, A.; Souto, E.B.; Lucarini, M.; Souto, S.B.; Durazzo, A.; Santini, A. Ready to use therapeutical beverages: Focus on functional beverages containing probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Beverages 2020, 6, 26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  123. Raman, M.; Ambalam, P.; Doble, M. 9-Probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers nutritive and functional beverages. In Nutrients in Beverages; Grumezescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019; Volume 12, pp. 315–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Di Cagno, R.; Filannino, P.; Cantatore, V.; Polo, A.; Celano, G.; Martinovic, A.; Cavoski, I.; Gobbetii, M. Design of potential probiotic yeast starters tailored for making a cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) functional beverage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2020, 323, 108591. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Valero-Cases, E.; Cerda-Bernad, D.; Pastor, J.J.; Frutos, M.J. Non-dairy fermented beverages as potential carriers to ensure probiotics, prebiotics, and bioactive compounds arrival to the gut and their health benefits. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1666. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Yang, X.; Zhou, J.; Fan, L.; Zhen, Q.; Chen, Q.; Zhao, L. Antioxidant properties of a vegetable-fruit beverage fermented with two Lactobacillus plantarum series. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2018, 27, 1719–1726. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  127. Güney, D.; Güngörmüşler, M. Development and Comparative Evaluation of a Novel Fermented Juice Mixture with Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria. Prebiotics Antimicrob. Proteins 2021, 13, 495–505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Lamsal, B.P. Production, health aspects and potential food uses of dairy prebiotic galactooligosaccharides. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2012, 92, 2020–2028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  129. Saad, N.; Delattre, C.; Urdaci, M.C.; Schmitter, J.M.; Bressollier, P. An overview of the last advances in probiotic and prebiotic field. LWT 2013, 50, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  130. Fonteles, T.V.; Rodrigues, S. Prebiotic in fruit juice: Processing challanges, advances, and perspective. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 2018, 22, 55–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  131. Corbo, M.R.; Bevilacqua, A.; Petruzzi, L.; Casanova, F.P.; Sinigaglia, M. Functional Beverages: The emerging side of functional foods. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2014, 13, 1192–1206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  132. Costabile, A.; Walton, G.E.; Tzoetzis, G.; Vulevic, J.; Charalampopoulos, D.; Gibson, G.R. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0121955. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  133. Filannino, P.; Azzi, L.; Cavoski, I.; Vincentini, O.; Rizzello, C.G.; Gobbetti, M.; Di Cagno, R. Exploitation of the health-promoting and sensory properties of organic pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice through lactic acid fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2013, 163, 184–192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  134. Murphy, M.M.; Barrai, L.M.; Herman, D.; Bi, X.; Cheatham, R.; Randolph, R.K. Phytonutrient intake by adults in the USA in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2012, 112, 222–229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  135. Negi, B.; Kaur, R.; Dey, G. Protective effects of a novel sea buckthorn wine on oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia. Food Funct. 2013, 4, 240–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  136. Gallie, D.R. L-ascorbic acid: A multifunctional molecule supporting plant growth and development. Scientifica 2013, 2013, 1–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  137. Brownawell, A.; Caers, W.; Gibson, G.R.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Lewis, K.D.; Ringel, Y.; Slavin, J.L. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber:current regulatory status, future research, and goals. J. Nutr. 2012, 142, 962–974. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  138. White, J.; Hekmat, S. Development of probiotic fruit juices using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with short chain and long chain inulin fiber. Fermentation 2018, 4, 27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  139. Ghafari, S.; Ansari, S. Microbial viability, physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation of pineapple juice enriched with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and inulin during refrigerated storage. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2018, 12, 2927–2935. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  140. Khezri, S.; Mahmoudi, R.; Dehghan, P. Fig juice fortified with inulin and Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A promising functional food. Appl. Food Biotechnol. 2018, 5, 97–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Blanco-Morales, V.; Lopez-Garcia, G.; Cilla, A.; Garcia-Llatas, G.; Barbera, R.; Lagarda, M.J.; Sanchez-Siles, L.M.; Alegria, A. The impact of galactooligosaccharides on the bioaccessibility of sterols in a plant sterol-enriched beverage: Adaptation of the harmonized INFOGEST digestion method. Food Funct. 2018, 9, 2080–2089. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  142. Lopez-Garcia, G.; Cilla, A.; Barberá, R.; Martinez, S.G.; Martorell, P.; Alegria, A. Effect of plant sterol and galactooligosaccharides enriched beverages on oxidative stress and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Funct. Foods 2020, 65, 1037472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Ghavidel, R.A.; Karimi, M.; Davoodi, M.; Jahanbani, R.; Asl, A.F.A. Effect of fructooligosaccharide fortification on quality characteristic of some fruit juice beverages (apple & orange juice). Intl. J. Farm. Alli. Sci. 2014, 3, 141–146. [Google Scholar]
  144. Almeida, F.D.L.; Gomes, W.F.; Cavalcante, R.S.; Tiwari, B.K.; Cullen, P.J.; Frias, J.M.; Bourke, P.; Fernandes, F.A.N.; Rodrigues, S. Fructooligosaccharides integrity after atmospheric cold plasma and high-pressure processing of a functional orange juice. Food Res. Int. 2017, 102, 282–290. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  145. Di Cagno, R.; Mazzacane, F.; Rizzello, C.G.; De Angelis, M.; Giuliani, G.; Meloni, M.; De Servi, M.; Gobbetti, M. Synthesis of gamma-aminoburyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus plantarum DSM19463: Functional grape must beverage and dermatological applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2010, 86, 731–741. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. de Sá, L.Z.M.; Castro, P.F.; Lino, F.M.; Bernardes, M.J.; Viegas, J.C.; Dinis, T.C.; Santana, M.J.; Romao, W.; Vaz, B.G.; Lião, L.M.; et al. Antioxidant potential and vasodilatory activity of fermented beverages of jabuticaba berry (Myrciaria jaboticaba). J. Funct. Foods 2014, 8, 169–179. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  147. Mantzourani, I.; Terpou, A.; Alexopoulos, A.; Bezirtzoglou, E.; Bekatorou, A.; Plessas, S. Production of a potentially synbiotic fermented Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) beverage using Lactobacillus paracasei K5 immobilized on wheat bran. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2019, 17, 347–351. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  148. Yonekura, S.; Okamoto, Y.; Okawa, T.; Hisamitsu, M.; Chazono, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Sakurai, D.; Horiguchi, S.; Hanazawa, T. Effects of daily intake of Lactobacillus paracasei strain KW3110 on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2009, 30, 397–405. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  149. Hütt, P.; Koll, P.; Stsepetova, J.; Alvarez, B.; Mändar, R.; Andersen, K.K.; Marcotte, H.; Hammarström, L.; Mikelsaar, M. Safety and persistence of orally administered human Lactobacillus sp. strains in healthy adults. Benef. Microbes 2011, 2, 79–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  150. Antolak, H.; Piechota, D.; Kucharska, A. Kombucha tea—A double power of bioactive compounds from tea and symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1541. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  151. Rodino, S.; Butu, M. 3-Herbal extracts-new trends in functional and medicine beverages. In Functional and Medicine Beverages; Grumuzescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2018; Volume 11, pp. 73–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  152. Azmir, J.; Zaidul, I.S.M.; Rahman, M.M.; Sharif, K.M.; Mohamed, A.; Sahena, F.; Jahurul, M.H.A.; Ghafoor, K.; Norulaini, N.A.N.; Omar, A.K.M. Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials: A review. J. Food Eng. 2013, 117, 426–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  153. Tonutti, I.; Liddle, P. Aromatic plants in alcoholic beverages. A review. Flavour Fragr. J. 2010, 25, 341–350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  154. Gonzalez-Manzano, S.; Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C.; Santos-Buelge, C. Extraction of flavan-3-ols from grape seed and skin into wine using simulated maceration. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2004, 153, 283–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  155. Lou, X.; Guo, X.; Wang, K.; Wu, C.; Jin, Y.; Lin, Y.; Xu, H.; Habba, M.; Yuan, L. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit infusion and decoction and influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on their digestive recovery. LWT 2021, 135, 110171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  156. Maran, J.P.; Priya, B.; Manikandan, S. Modeling and optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from Syzygium cumini fruit pulp. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2014, 51, 1938–1946. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  157. Teng, W.-H.; Chen, C.C.; Chung, R.-S. HPLC comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction of coumarins from the peel of Citrus maxima fruit. Phytochem. Anal. 2005, 16, 459–462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  158. Ruiz-Rodríguez, A.; Fornari, T.; Jaime, L.; Vázquez, E.; Amador, B.; Nieto, J.A.; Yuste, M.; Mercader, M.; Reglero, G. Supercritical CO2 extraction applied toward the production of a functional beverage from wine. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2012, 61, 92–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  159. Silva, E.K.; Bargas, M.A.; Arruda, H.S.; Vardanega, R.; Pastore, G.M.; Meireles, M.A.A. Supercritical CO2 processing of a functional beverage containing apple juice and aqueous extract of Pfaffia glomerata roots: Fructooligosaccharides chemical stability after non-thermal and thermal treatments. Molecules 2020, 25, 3911. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  160. Teng, H.; Lee, W.Y.; Choi, Y.H. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology. J. Sep. Sci. 2013, 36, 3107–3114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  161. Singh, R.; Kumar, M.; Mittal, A.; Mehta, P.K. Microbial enzymes: Industrial progress in 21st century. 3 Biotechnol. 2016, 6, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  162. Sattar, S.; Imran, M.; Mushtaq, Z.; Ahmad, M.H.; Arshad, M.S.; Holmes, M.; Maycock, J.; Nisar, M.F.; Khan, M.K. Retention and stability of bioctive compounds in functional peaches beverage using pasteurization, microwave and ultrasound technologies. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2020, 29, 1381–1388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  163. Reddy, V.B.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Madhavi, V.; Jaafar, J. Chapter 8-Recent improvements in the extraction, cleanup and quantification of bioactive flavonoids. In Studies in Natural Products Chemistry; Atta-ur-Rahman, Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2020; Volume 66, pp. 197–223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  164. Khandpur, P.; Gogate, P.R. Effect of novel ultrasound based processing on the nutrition quality of different fruit and vegetable juices. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2015, 27, 125–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  165. Jiang, X.; Lu, Y.; Liu, S.Q. Effects of pectinase treatment on the physicochemical and oenological properties of red dragon fruit wine fermented with Torulaspora delbrueckii. LWT 2020, 132, 109929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  166. Dinkova, R.; Heffels, P.; Shikov, V.; Weber, F.; Schieber, A.; Mihalev, K. Effect of enzyme-assisted extraction on the chilled storage stability of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) anthocyanins in skin extracts and freshly pressed juice. Food Res. Int. 2014, 65, 35–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  167. Kim, B.H.M.; Park, S.K. Enhancement of volatile aromatic compounds in black raspberry wines via enzymatic treatment: Volatiles in black raspberry wine via enzymatic treatment. J. Inst. Brew. 2017, 132, 277–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  168. Yang, N.; Huang, K.; Lyu, C.; Wang, J. Pulsed electric field technology in the manufacturing processes of wine, beer, and rice wine: A review. Food Control 2016, 61, 28–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  169. Al Daccache, M.; Koubaa, M.; Salameh, D.; Vorobiev, E.; Maroun, R.G.; Louka, N. Control of the sugar/ethanol conversion rate during moderate pulsed electric field-assisted fermentation of Hanseniaspora sp. strain to produce low-alcohol cider. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. 2020, 59, 102258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  170. Mota, M.J.; Lopes, R.P.; Koubaa, M.; Roohinejad, S.; Barba, F.J.; Delgadilo, I.; Saraiva, J.A. Fermentation at non-conventional conditions in food- and bio-sciences by the application of advanced processing technologies. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2017, 38, 122–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  171. Siddeeg, A.; Zeng, X.-A.; Rahaman, A.; Manzoor, M.F.; Ahmed, Z.; Ammar, A.-F. Effect of pulsed electric field pretreatment of date palm fruits on free amino acids, bioactive components, and physicochemical characteristics of the alcoholic beverage. J. Food Sci. 2019, 84, 3156–3162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  172. Delsart, C.; Cholet, C.; Ghidossi, R.; Grimi, N.; Gontier, E.; Geny, L.; Vorobiev, E.; Mietton-Peuchot, M. Effects of pulsed electric fields on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries and on the characteristics of wines. Food Bioproc. Technol. 2013, 7, 424–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  173. Gabrić, D.; Barba, F.; Roohinejad, S.; Gharibzahedi, S.M.T.; Radojčin, M.; Putnik, P.; Kovačević, D.B. Pulsed electric fields as an alternative to thermal processing for preservation of nutritive and physicochemical properties of beverages: A review. J. Food Process. Eng. 2018, 41, e12638. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  174. Yi, J.; Kebede, B.T.; Kristiani, K.; Grauwet, T.; van Loey, A.; Hendrickx, M. Minimizing quality changes of cloudy apple juice: The use of kiwifruit puree and high pressure homogenization. Food Chem. 2017, 249, 202–212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  175. Morata, A.; Loira, I.; Vejarano, R.; Bañuelos, M.A.; Sanz, P.D.; Otero, L.; Suarez-Lepe, J.A. Grape processing by high hydrostatic pressure: Effect on microbial populations, phenol extraction and wine quality. Food Bioproc. Technol. 2014, 8, 277–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  176. Garcia, C.; Guerin, M.; Souidi, K.; Remize, F. Lactic fermented fruit or vegetable juices: Past, present and future. Beverages 2020, 6, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  177. Jincy, G.M.; Rastogi, N.K. High pressure procesing for food fermentation. In Novel Food Fermentation Technologies; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2016; pp. 57–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  178. Maza, M.A.; Martinez, J.M.; Hernandez-Orte, P.; Cebrian, G.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A.C.; Alvarez, I.; Raso, J. Influence of pulsed electric fields on aroma and polyphenolic compounds of Garnacha wine. Food Bioprod. Process. 2019, 116, 249–257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  179. Xu, L.-F.; Tang, Z.-S.; Wen, Q.-H.; Zeng, X.-A.; Brennan, C.; Niu, D. Effects of pulsed electric fields pretreatment on the quality of jujube wine. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 54, 3109–3117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  180. Kaur, M.; Sahota, P.; Sharma, N.; Kaur, K.; Sood, B. Enzymatic production of debittered Kinnow juice and beverage. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 2018, 7, 1180–1186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  181. Guo, J.; Yan, Y.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Liu, S.-Q.; Chen, D.; Lu, Y. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the chemical constituents in jujube alcoholic beverage fermented with Torulaspora delbrueckii. LWT 2018, 97, 617–623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  182. Toy, J.Y.H.; Lu, Y.; Huang, D.; Matsumura, K.; Liu, S.Q. Enzymatic treatment, unfermented and fermented fruit-based products: Current state of knowledge. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr. 2020, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  183. Belda, I.; Conchilo, L.B.; Ruiz, J.; Navascues, E.; Marquina, D.; Santos, A. Selection and use of pectinolytic yeasts for improving clarification and phenolic extraction in winemaking. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2016, 223, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  184. Ferreira Rosas, L.; Alves Macedo, J.; Lima Ribeiro, M.; Alves Macedo, G. Improving the chemopreventive potential of orange juice by enzymatic biotransformation. Food Res. Int. 2013, 51, 526–535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  185. Liu, S.; Chang, X.; Liu, X.; Shen, Z. Effects of pretreatments on anthocyanin composition, phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities during fermentation of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) drink. Food Chem. 2016, 212, 87–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  186. Kubo, M.T.K.; Curet, S.; Augusto, P.E.D.; Boillereaux, L. Multiphysics modeling of microwave processing for enzyme inactivation in fruit juices. J. Food Technol. 2019, 263, 366–379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  187. Mendes-Oliveira, G.; Deering, A.J.; San Martin-Gonzalez, F.M.; Campanella, O.H. Microwave pasteurization of apple juice: Modeling the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium at 80–90°C. Food Microbiol. 2020, 87, 103382. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  188. Salazar-Gonzalez, C.; San Martin-Gonzalez, F.M.; Lopez-Malo, A.; Sosa-Morales, M.E. Recent studies related to microwave processing of fluid foods. Food Bioproc. Technol. 2012, 5, 31–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  189. Swamy, G.J.; Muthukumarappan, K.; Asokapandian, S. Chapter 23—Ultrasound for fruit juice preservation; fruit juices- extraction, composition. In Quality and Analysis; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2018; pp. 451–462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  190. Zhai, X.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Zhang, H.; Ji, Y.; Ren, D.; Lu, J. An efficient method using ultrasound to accelerate aging in crabapple (Malus asiatica) vinegar produced from fresh fruit and its influencing mechanism investigation. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2021, 72, 105464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  191. Wang, J.; Xie, B.; Sun, Z. Quality parameters and bioactive compound bioaccessibility changes in probiotics fermented mango juice using ultraviolet-assisted ultrasonic pre-treatment during cold storage. LWT 2020, 137, 110438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  192. Paniwnyk, L. Applications of ultrasound in processing of liquid foods: A review. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2017, 38, 794–806. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  193. Costa, M.G.; Fonteles, T.D.; Tiberio de Jesus, A.L.; Rodrigues, S. Sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for L. casei cultivation for probiotic beverage development: Process optimisation and product stability. Food Chem. 2013, 139, 261–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  194. Guimarães, J.T.; Silva, E.K.; Ranadheera, S.; Moraes, J.; Raices, R.; Silva, M.C.; Ferreira, M.S.; Freitas, M.Q.; Meireles, M.A.A.; Cruz, A.G. Effect of high-intensity ultrasound on the nutritional profile and volatile compounds of a prebiotic soursop whey beverage. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019, 55, 157–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  195. Zhou, L.; Guan, Y.; Bi, J.; Liu, X.; Yi, J.; Chen, Q.; Wu, X.; Zhou, M. Change of the rheological properties of mango juice by high pressure homogenization. LWT 2017, 82, 121–130. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  196. Bansal, V.; Jabeen, K.; Rao, P.S.; Prasad, P.; Yadav, S.K. Effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on microbial safety, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds of whay-based sweet lime (whey-lime) beverage. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2018, 13, 454–465. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  197. Nayak, P.K.; Rayaguru, K.; Krishnan, R.K. Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high-pressure processing and thermal treatment. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2016, 97, 1404–1411. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  198. Morata, A.; Guamis, B. Use of UHPH to obtain juices with better nutritional quality and healthier wines with low levels of SO2. Front. Nutr. 2020, 7, 241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  199. Huang, H.-W.; Wu, S.; Lu, J.K.; Shyu, Y.T.; Wang, C.Y. Current status and future trends of high-pressure processing in food industry. Food Control 2017, 72, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  200. Balasubramaniam, V.M.; Martinez-Monteagudo, S.I.; Gupta, R. Principles and application of high pressure-based technologies in the food industry. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 6, 435–462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  201. Ciani, M.; Canonico, L.; Oro, L.; Comitini, F. 14-Footprint of nonconventional yeasts and their contribution in alcoholic fermentation. In Biotechnological Progress and Beverage Consumption; Grumuzescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2020; Volume 19, pp. 435–465. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  202. Benito, S.; Palomero, F.; Morata, A.; Calderon, F.; Suarez-Lepe, J.A. New applications for Schizosaccharomyces pombe in the alcoholic fermentation of red wines. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 2101–2108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  203. Mas, A.; Guillamon, J.M.; Torija, M.J.; Beltran, G.; Cerezo, A.B.; Troncoso, A.M.; Garcia-Parrilla, C. Bioactive compounds derived from the yeast metabolism of aromatic amino acids during alcoholic fermentation. BioMed Res. Int. 2014, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  204. Rodriguez-Naranjo, I.; Gil-Izquierdo, A.; Troncoso, A.M.; Cantos-Villar, E.; Garcia-Parrilla, C. Melatonin is synthesised by yeast during alcoholic fermentation in wines. Food Chem. 2011, 126, 1608–1613. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  205. Fernández-Pachón, M.-S.; Medina, S.; Herrero-Martin, G.; Cerrillo, I.; Berna, G.; Escudero-Lopez, B.; Ferreres, F.; Martin, F.; Garcia-Parrilla, M.C.; Gil-Izquierdo, A. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice. J. Pineal Res. 2014, 56, 31–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  206. Feng, X.; Wang, M.; Zhao, Y.; Han, P.; Dai, Y. Melatonin from different fruit sources, functional roles, and analytical methods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2014, 37, 21–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  207. Cerrillo, I.; Escudero-Lopez, B.; Hornero-Mendez, D.; Martin, F.; Fernandez-Pachon, M.-S. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the carotenoid composition and provitamin a content of orange juice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62, 842–849. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  208. Escudero-Lopez, B.; Cerrillo, I.; Herrero-Martin, G.; Hornero-Mendez, D.; Gil-Izquierdo, A.; Medina, S.; Ferreres, F.; Berna, G.; Martin, F.; Fernandez-Pachon, M.-S. Fermented orange juice: Source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012, 61, 8773–8782. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  209. Sengun, I.Y. Acetic Acid Bacteria. In Fundamentals Food Applications, 1st ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  210. Yamada, Y. Systematics of Acetic Acid Bacteria. In Acetic Acid Bacteria Ecology and Physiology; Matsushita, K., Toyama, H., Tonouchi, N., Okamoto-Kainuma, A., Eds.; Springer: Tokyo, Japan, 2016; pp. 1–50. [Google Scholar]
  211. Gomes, R.J.; de Fatima, B.M.; de Freitas, R.M.; Castro-Gomez, R.J.H.; Spinosa, W.A. Acetic acid bacteria in the food industry: Systematics, characteristics and applications. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 2018, 56, 139–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  212. Giuffré, A.M.; Zappia, C.; Capocasale, M.; Poiana, M.; Sidari, R.; Di Donna, L.; Bartella, L.; Sindona, G.; Corradini, G.; Giudici, P.; et al. Vinegar production to valorise Citrus bergamia by-products. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2018, 245, 667–675. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  213. Malo, P.; Urquhart, E.A. Fermented foods: Use of starter cultures. In Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2nd ed.; Carl Batt, C., Pradip, P., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2016; pp. 681–685. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  214. Muñoz, R.; Moreno-Arribas, V.M.; de las Rivas, B. Chapter 8-Lactic Acid Bacteria. In Molecular Wine Microbiology; Santiago, A.C., Munoz, R., Gonzalez Garcia, R., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2011; pp. 191–226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  215. Muhialdin, B.J.; Kadum, H.; Zarei, M.; Hussin, A.S.M. Effects of metabolite changes during lacto-fermentation on the biological activity and consumer acceptability for dragon fruit juice. LWT 2020, 121, 108992. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  216. Muhialdin, B.J.; Kadum, H.; Hussin, A.S.M. Metabolomics profiling of fermented cantaloupe juice and the potential application to extend the shelf life of cantaloupe juice for six months at 8 °C. Food Control 2021, 120, 107555. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  217. Ceci, C.; Lacal, P.M.; Tentori, L.; De Martino, M.G.; Miano, R.; Graziani, G. Experimental evidence of the antitumor, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity of ellagic acid. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1756. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  218. Chen, R.; Chen, W.; Chen, H.; Zhang, G.; Chen, W. Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant capacities, organic acids, and volatiles of papaya juices fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. J. Food Qual. 2018, 2018, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  219. Furukawa, S.; Watanabe, T.; Toyama, H.; Morinaga, Y. Significance of microbial symbiotic coexistence in traditional fermentation. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2013, 116, 533–539. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  220. Stadie, J.; Gulitz, A.; Ehrmann, M.; Vogel, R. Metabolic activity and symbiotic interactions of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from water kefir. Food Microbiol. 2013, 35, 92–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  221. Sabokbar, N.; Khodaiyan, F. Characterization of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 52, 3711–3718. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  222. Sabokbar, N.; Moosabi-Nasab, M.; Khodaiyan, F. Preparation and characterization of an apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented using kefir grains. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2015, 24, 2095–2104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  223. Kazakos, S.; Mantzourani, I.; Nouska, C.; Alexopoulos, A.; Bezirtzoglou, E.; Bekatorou, A.; Plessas, S.; Varzakas, T.S. Production of low-alcohol fruit beverages through fermentation of pomegranate and orange juices with kefir grains. Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci. 2016, 4, 19–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  224. Bellut, K.; Krogerus, K.; Arendt, E.K. Lachancea fermentati strains isolated from Kombucha: Fundamental insights, and practical application in low alcohol beer brewing. Front. Microbiol. 2020, 11, 764. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  225. Mohanty, D.; Misra, S.; Mohapatra, S.; Sahu, P.S. Prebiotics and synbiotics: Recent concepts in nutrition. Food Biosci. 2018, 26, 152–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  226. Trigo, J.P.; Alexandre, E.M.C.; Saraiva, J.M.A.; Pintado, M.E. High value-added compounds from fruit and vegetable by-products –characterization, bioactivities, and application in the development of novel food products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2019, 60, 1–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  227. Ferrentino, G.; Asaduzzaman, M.D.; Scampicchio, M.M. Current technologies and new insights for the recovery of high valuable compounds from fruits by-products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2018, 58, 386–404. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  228. Campos, D.A.; Gomez-Garcia, R.; Vilas-Boas, A.A.; Madureira, A.R.; Pintado, M.M. Management of fruit industrial by-products-a case study on circular economy approach. Molecules 2020, 25, 320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
Table 1. Concentration of the main phenolic compounds found in different fruit-based fermented beverages.
Table 1. Concentration of the main phenolic compounds found in different fruit-based fermented beverages.
BeveragePhenolic Compounds (μg/mL)References
Phenolic AcidsFlavonoids
Gallic AcidCaffeic AcidFerulic Acidp-Coumaric AcidChlorogenic AcidCatechinRutinQuercetin
Fermented mulberry juice1598.3187.52.491.6163.5194.7300.8[112]
Wax apple cider11.562.169.10.1464.6110.141.361.1[61]
Cider with added apple pomace3.93–3.72–4.21–1.58.3–22.524.41.8–3.32.1[63,113,114]
Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries0.01––13.31.19–3.70.01–7.80.8–6.923.1320–1400[50,115]
Blackberry wine4.5–1181.2––41.2–8.39–4535.134.9[70,116,117,118]
Table 2. Prebiotic and probiotic content in fruit-based fermented beverages.
Table 2. Prebiotic and probiotic content in fruit-based fermented beverages.
Prebiotic AddedRecommended Dose for FortifyingBeverage TypeContent of Prebiotic and Probiotic CompoundReferences
Inulin3% w/w for infant formulas and 5% w/w for common beverages
5 g in Europe
9–10 g in Korea
1.25 g/portion in Southeast Asia
L. rhamnosus probiotic orange juice fortified with long chain inulinL. rhamnosus 5.9 × 107 CFU/mL; long chain inulin 4 g/100 mL[137,138,139,140]
Pineapple juice enriched with L. casei or L. rhamnosus and inulinL. casei (108 CFU/mL) or L. rhamnosus (108 CFU/mL); inulin 2 g/100 mL
Fig juice fortified with inulin and L. delbrueckiiL. delbrueckii ˃106 CFU/g; inulin 2 g/100 mL
GOSMax 5% w/w in beveragePS-enriched milk-based fruit beverage with 5 g GOS/250 mLGOS 2 g/100 mL[141,142]
FOS5 g in Europe
1.25 g/portion in Southeast Asia
3% w/w for infant formulas and 5% w/w for common beverages
FOS-fortified apple juiceFOS 15.5 g/100 mL[137,143,144]
FOS-enriched mixed fruit beverageFOS 0.7 g/100 mL
Prebiotic orange juiceFOS 7 g/100 mL
Table 3. Content of the main compounds of interest, daily recommended dose, and health effects of fermented beverages from different fruits.
Table 3. Content of the main compounds of interest, daily recommended dose, and health effects of fermented beverages from different fruits.
Type of BeverageFermentation TypeChemical Compound/Class of Compounds of InterestConcentration of Compounds of InterestDaily Recommended Dose of Compound of InterestImpact on HealthReferences
Grape-based fermented beverageLacticPolyphenols (grape must), γ-amino butyric acid
L. plantarum DSM19463
γ-amino butyric acid 10 g/20 mL;
Log 10.0 ufc/g L. plantarum
γ-amino butyric acid: 10 g Anti-hypertensive activity; anti-inflammation and fibroblast cell proliferation, activities that promote the healing process of wounds[145]
Fermented jabuticaba berry beverage (12% ABV) AlcoholicPhenolic compounds (rutin, quercetin, anthocyanins, coumarins, gallic acid)Gallic acid 3 mg/mL; phenolics and coumarins 68.9 mg/mLQuercetin: 13.4–22.8 mg—men;
11.1–17.7 mg—women
Antioxidant, vasorelaxation, and cardiovascular protection[134,146]
Pomegranate fermented juiceLacticPhenolic compounds (ellagic acid)
L. plantarum
Ellagic acid 6.4–7.1 mg/L;
L. plantarum: 6 Log CFU/mL
Ellagic acid: 17.9 mg—men; 27.6 mg women (USA)Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties, inhibits growth of tumor cells[133,134]
Sea buckthorn wineAlcoholicRutin, myricetin, quercetin, vitamin CAscorbic acid 176.8 mg/L;
rutin 68.4 mg/L;
myricetin 40.3 mg/L; quercetin 1.04 mg/L
Quercetin: 13.4–22.8 mg—men;
11.1–17.7 mg women
Vitamin C: 90 mg—men, 75 mg—women
Protective effects against oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia; anti-inflammatory, myocardial protecting, vasodilator and hepatoprotective activities[134,135,136]
Symbiotic fermented Cornelian cherry beverage (0.2–0.7% ABV)Alcoholic and lacticFibers, phenols,
L. paracasei K5, lactic acid
Wheat bran-50% dietary fiber (used as a prebiotic and cell immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus)
L. paracasei 9.74 Log CFU/mL, lactic acid 167.8 mg/100 mL
1010–3 × 1012 CFU L. paracaseiAntimicrobial activity against various pathogens; anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antidiabetic activities[147,148,149]
Symbiotic fruit based kombucha beverageAcetic, lactic and alcoholicOrganic acids, vitamins, phenols, minerals, probiotics, carbohydrates, amino acids, bacteriocinsAcetic acid 0.016–39 g/L, gluconic acid 0.18 g/L,
vitamin B1 0.74 mg/mL, vitamin B2 0.08 mg/mL, vitamin B6 0.52 mg/mL, vitamin B12 0.84 mg/mL, vitamin C 25,000 mg/mL
Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn 0.1 to 0.4 μg/mL
Total phenolic content 178–264 mg GAE/L
Flavonoid content 2307.14 mg QE/L
Vitamin C: 90 mg—men, 75 mg—womenAntimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, anticarcinogenic potential[77,78,136,150]
Table 4. Advantages and disadvantages of methods to improve the functional potential of fruit-based fermented beverages.
Table 4. Advantages and disadvantages of methods to improve the functional potential of fruit-based fermented beverages.
Pulsed electric field (PEF)Non-thermalReduction of the quantity of SO2 used
Reduced degradation of nutritional and sensorial characteristics
Controlled sugar/ethanol conversion in fermentation
Improved extraction of compounds of interest
Alternative to pasteurization
Inactivation of microorganisms
Corrosion and migration of electrode materials
Metallic taste
Degradation of some compounds (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-sophoroside)
Enzyme assisted extraction (EAE)Non-thermalImproved yeast growth by releasing nutrients
Enhanced aroma of the beverage
Increased yield of fermentation
Improved clarification process and biological activity
Susceptible to substrate or product inhibition
The product may cause an allergic reaction
High cost for isolation and purification
Difficult recovery for subsequent reuse
Higher temperatures (˃40 °C) and pH over 7.4 lead to denaturation
Microwave assisted extraction (MAE)Thermal Increased total anthocyanin content
Enzyme inactivation
Inactivation of microorganisms
Increased juice stability
Only certain microwave frequencies can be used because they can interfere with radio frequencies
Non-uniform temperature distribution resulting in hot and cold spots
Longer extraction step and poor extraction yield
Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)Non-thermalIncreased content of bioactive compounds
Prevention of browning
Shortened aging process
Inactivation of microorganisms
Degradation of ascorbic acid
Decreased content of minerals
Increased ultrasonic intensities may cause physical-chemical degradation
High pressure homogenization (HPH)Non-thermalImproved yield of extraction
Increased shelf life
Inactivation of microorganisms
Changed rheological characteristics
Improved overall aspect of beverages, especially color
Pressures exceeding 1200 MPa are needed to inactivate bacterial spores
Most products must be stored and transported under refrigeration
Cladosporium spores may survive in low-acid HPH products.
High processing costs
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Keșa, A.-L.; Pop, C.R.; Mudura, E.; Salanță, L.C.; Pasqualone, A.; Dărab, C.; Burja-Udrea, C.; Zhao, H.; Coldea, T.E. Strategies to Improve the Potential Functionality of Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages. Plants 2021, 10, 2263.

AMA Style

Keșa A-L, Pop CR, Mudura E, Salanță LC, Pasqualone A, Dărab C, Burja-Udrea C, Zhao H, Coldea TE. Strategies to Improve the Potential Functionality of Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages. Plants. 2021; 10(11):2263.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keșa, Ancuța-Liliana, Carmen Rodica Pop, Elena Mudura, Liana Claudia Salanță, Antonella Pasqualone, Cosmin Dărab, Cristina Burja-Udrea, Haifeng Zhao, and Teodora Emilia Coldea. 2021. "Strategies to Improve the Potential Functionality of Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages" Plants 10, no. 11: 2263.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop