In spatial science and urban applications, “space" is presented by multiple disciplines as a notion referencing our living environment. Space is used as a general term to help understand particular characteristics of the environment. However, the definition and perception of space varies and these variations have to be harmonised. For example, space may have diverse definitions and classification, the same environment may be abstracted/modelled by contradicting notions of space, which can lead to inconsistencies and misunderstandings. In this paper, we seek to investigate and document the state-of-the-art in the research of “space” regarding its definition, classification, modelling and utilization (2D/3D) in spatial sciences and urban applications. We focus on positioning, navigation, building micro-climate and thermal comfort, landscape, urban planning and design, urban heat island, interior design and planning, transportation and intelligent space. We review 147 research papers, technical reports and on-line resources. We compare the presented space concepts with respect to five criteria—classification, boundary, modelling components, use of standards and granularity. The review inventory is intended for both scientists and professionals in the spatial industry, such as companies, national mapping agencies and governments, and aim to provide a reference to better understand and employ the “space” while working across disciplines.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited