Mapping with surveying equipment is a time-consuming and cost-intensive procedure that makes the frequent map updating unaffordable. In the last few years, much research has focused on eliminating such problems by counting on crowdsourced data, such as GPS traces. An important source of information in maps, especially under the consideration of forthcoming self-driving vehicles, is the traffic regulators. This information is largely lacking in maps like OpenstreetMap (OSM) and this article is motivated by this fact. The topic of this systematic literature review (SLR) is the detection and recognition of traffic regulators such as traffic lights (signals), stop-, yield-, priority-signs, right of way priority rules and turning restrictions at intersections, by leveraging non imagery crowdsourced data. More particularly, the aim of this study is (1) to identify the range of detected and recognised regulatory types by crowdsensing
means, (2) to indicate the different classification techniques that can be used for these two tasks, (3) to assess the performance of different methods, as well as (4) to identify important aspects of the applicability of these methods. The two largest databases of peer-reviewed literature were used to locate relevant research studies and after different screening steps eleven articles were selected for review. Two major findings were concluded—(a) most regulator types can be identified with over 80% accuracy, even using heuristic-driven approaches and (b) under the current progress on the field, no study can be reproduced for comparative purposes nor can solely rely on open data sources due to lack of publicly available datasets and ground truth maps. Future research directions are highlighted as possible extensions of the reviewed studies.
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