Next Article in Journal
Detecting Large-Scale Urban Land Cover Changes from Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using CNN-Based Classification
Next Article in Special Issue
Integrated UAV-Based Real-Time Mapping for Security Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Transport System Models and Big Data: Zoning and Graph Building with Traditional Surveys, FCD and GIS
Previous Article in Special Issue
Delineation of Cocoa Agroforests Using Multiseason Sentinel-1 SAR Images: A Low Grey Level Range Reduces Uncertainties in GLCM Texture-Based Mapping
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

On the Feasibility of Water Surface Mapping with Single Photon LiDAR

Institute for Photogrammetry, University of Stuttgart, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
TU Wien, Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, 1040 Vienna, Austria
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(4), 188;
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Sensing - From Sensors to Methods and Applications)
PDF [24213 KB, uploaded 10 April 2019]


Single photon sensitive airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) enables a higher area performance at the price of an increased outlier rate and a lower ranging accuracy compared to conventional Multi-Photon LiDAR. Single Photon LiDAR, in particular, uses green laser light potentially capable of penetrating clear shallow water. The technology is designed for large-area topographic mapping, which also includes the water surface. While the penetration capabilities of green lasers generally lead to underestimation of the water level heights, we specifically focus on the questions of whether Single Photon LiDAR (i) is less affected in this respect due to the high receiver sensitivity, and (ii) consequently delivers sufficient water surface echoes for precise high-resolution water surface reconstruction. After a review of the underlying sensor technology and the interaction of green laser light with water, we address the topic by comparing the surface responses of actual Single Photon LiDAR and Multi-Photon Topo-Bathymetric LiDAR datasets for selected horizontal water surfaces. The anticipated superiority of Single Photon LiDAR could not be verified in this study. While the mean deviations from a reference water level are less than 5 cm for surface models with a cell size of 10 m, systematic water level underestimation of 5–20 cm was observed for high-resolution Single Photon LiDAR based water surface models with cell sizes of 1–5 m. Theoretical photon counts obtained from simulations based on the laser-radar equation support the experimental data evaluation results and furthermore confirm the feasibility of Single Photon LiDAR based high-resolution water surface mapping when adopting specifically tailored flight mission parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: water level mapping; single photon sensitivity; multi-photon LiDAR; discrete-echo LiDAR; laser bathymetry water level mapping; single photon sensitivity; multi-photon LiDAR; discrete-echo LiDAR; laser bathymetry

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mandlburger, G.; Jutzi, B. On the Feasibility of Water Surface Mapping with Single Photon LiDAR. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 188.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top