As part of the contribution to flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood areas, locations, and durations. Multiple satellite-based flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk assessment in disaster risk management. In this paper, the MODIS-derived synchronized floodwater index (SfWi) was used to detect the maximum extent of a nationwide flood based on annual time-series data of 2015 in order to maximize the application of optical satellite data. The selected three major rivers—i.e., Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM), transboundary rivers running through the great floodplain delta lying between Bangladesh and eastern India—show that a propensity of flood risk was revealed by the temporal and spatial dynamics of the maximum flood extent during the 2015 monsoon season. Resultant flood maps showed that SfWi-indicated flood areas were small but more accurate than those derived from the single use of the MODIS-derived water index. The return period of SfWi-indicated maximum flood extent was confirmed to be about 20 years based on historical flood records.
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