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Article

What Happens in the City When Long-Term Urban Expansion and (Un)Sustainable Fringe Development Occur: The Case Study of Rome

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Planning and Design Faculty, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, 311 Borgarbyggð, Iceland
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Department of Economics and Law, University of Macerata, Via Armaroli 43, 62100 Macerata, Italy
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IMAA—CNR (Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis—Italian National Research Council), c.da Santa Loja snc, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy
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Department of Overland Communication Ways, Foundation and Cadastral Survey, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1A I. Curea Street, 300224 Timisoara, Romania
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Mathematics, Computer Science and Economics Department, University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza, Italy
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Global Change Research Institute CAS, Lipova 9, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via San Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wolfgang Kainz and Maria Antonia Brovelli
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040231
Received: 16 February 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 4 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodata Science and Spatial Analysis in Urban Studies)
This study investigates long-term landscape transformations (1949–2016) in urban Rome, Central Italy, through a spatial distribution of seven metrics (core, islet, perforation, edge, loop, bridge, branch) derived from a Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) analyzed separately for seven land-use classes (built-up areas, arable land, crop mosaic, vineyards, olive groves, forests, pastures). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been finally adopted to characterize landscape structure at 1949 and 2016. Results of the MSPA demonstrate how both natural and agricultural land-uses have decreased following urban expansion. Moreover, the percent ‘core’ area of each class declined substantially, although with different intensity. These results clearly indicate ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ after long-term landscape transformations: urban settlements and forests belong to the former category, the remaining land-use classes (mostly agricultural) belong to the latter category. Descriptive statistics and multivariate exploratory techniques finally documented the intrinsic complexity characteristic of actual landscapes. The findings of this study also demonstrate how settlements have expanded chaotically over the study area, reflecting a progressive ‘fractalization’ and inhomogeneity of fringe landscapes, with negative implications for metropolitan sustainability at large. These transformations were unable to leverage processes of settlement and economic re-agglomeration around sub-centers typical of polycentric development in the most advanced socioeconomic contexts. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban growth; landscape metrics; mathematical morphology; metropolization; southern Europe urban growth; landscape metrics; mathematical morphology; metropolization; southern Europe
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nickayin, S.S.; Salvati, L.; Coluzzi, R.; Lanfredi, M.; Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, R.; Salvia, R.; Quaranta, G.; Alhuseen, A.; Gaburova, L. What Happens in the City When Long-Term Urban Expansion and (Un)Sustainable Fringe Development Occur: The Case Study of Rome. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 231. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040231

AMA Style

Nickayin SS, Salvati L, Coluzzi R, Lanfredi M, Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir R, Salvia R, Quaranta G, Alhuseen A, Gaburova L. What Happens in the City When Long-Term Urban Expansion and (Un)Sustainable Fringe Development Occur: The Case Study of Rome. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(4):231. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nickayin, Samaneh S., Luca Salvati, Rosa Coluzzi, Maria Lanfredi, Rares Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, Rosanna Salvia, Giovanni Quaranta, Ahmed Alhuseen, and Luisa Gaburova. 2021. "What Happens in the City When Long-Term Urban Expansion and (Un)Sustainable Fringe Development Occur: The Case Study of Rome" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 4: 231. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040231

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