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Open AccessReview

The PTEN–PI3K Axis in Cancer

1
Cancer Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
2
Cancer Research Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center, Department of Medicine and Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9040153
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, a Field in Transition)
The PI3K–AKT–mTOR signal transduction pathway regulates a variety of biological processes including cell growth, cell cycle progression and proliferation, cellular metabolism, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Fine-tuning of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling output is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and uncontrolled activation of this cascade leads to a number of human pathologies including cancer. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN) and/or activating mutations in the proto-typical lipid kinase PI3K have emerged as some of the most frequent events associated with human cancer and as a result the PI3K pathway has become a highly sought-after target for cancer therapies. In this review we summarize the essential role of the PTEN–PI3K axis in controlling cellular behaviors by modulating activation of key proto-oncogenic molecular nodes and functional targets. Further, we highlight important functional redundancies and peculiarities of these two critical enzymes that over the last few decades have become a central part of the cancer research field and have instructed hundreds of pre-clinical and clinical trials to better cancer treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer
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Papa, A.; Pandolfi, P.P. The PTEN–PI3K Axis in Cancer. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 153.

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