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Biomolecules 2019, 9(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9040153 (registering DOI)

The PTEN–PI3K Axis in Cancer

1
Cancer Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
2
Cancer Research Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center, Department of Medicine and Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, a Field in Transition)
PDF [368 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]

Abstract

The PI3K–AKT–mTOR signal transduction pathway regulates a variety of biological processes including cell growth, cell cycle progression and proliferation, cellular metabolism, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Fine-tuning of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling output is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and uncontrolled activation of this cascade leads to a number of human pathologies including cancer. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN) and/or activating mutations in the proto-typical lipid kinase PI3K have emerged as some of the most frequent events associated with human cancer and as a result the PI3K pathway has become a highly sought-after target for cancer therapies. In this review we summarize the essential role of the PTEN–PI3K axis in controlling cellular behaviors by modulating activation of key proto-oncogenic molecular nodes and functional targets. Further, we highlight important functional redundancies and peculiarities of these two critical enzymes that over the last few decades have become a central part of the cancer research field and have instructed hundreds of pre-clinical and clinical trials to better cancer treatments.
Keywords: PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Papa, A.; Pandolfi, P.P. The PTEN–PI3K Axis in Cancer. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 153.

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