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Nucleotide Transport and Metabolism in Diatoms

1
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 1160/31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Pflanzenphysiologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120761
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary and Molecular Aspects of Plastid Endosymbioses)
Plastids, organelles that evolved from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis in eukaryotes, provide carbohydrates for the formation of biomass and for mitochondrial energy production to the cell. They generate their own energy in the form of the nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP). However, plastids of non-photosynthetic tissues, or during the dark, depend on external supply of ATP. A dedicated antiporter that exchanges ATP against adenosine diphosphate (ADP) plus inorganic phosphate (Pi) takes over this function in most photosynthetic eukaryotes. Additional forms of such nucleotide transporters (NTTs), with deviating activities, are found in intracellular bacteria, and, surprisingly, also in diatoms, a group of algae that acquired their plastids from other eukaryotes via one (or even several) additional endosymbioses compared to algae with primary plastids and higher plants. In this review, we summarize what is known about the nucleotide synthesis and transport pathways in diatom cells, and discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of the additional NTTs in diatoms, as well as their applications in biotechnology.
Keywords: endosymbiosis; plastid; photosynthesis; adenosine triphosphate (ATP); transport; evolution; synthetic biology endosymbiosis; plastid; photosynthesis; adenosine triphosphate (ATP); transport; evolution; synthetic biology
MDPI and ACS Style

Gruber, A.; Haferkamp, I. Nucleotide Transport and Metabolism in Diatoms. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 761.

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