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Evolutionary Conservation and Expression Patterns of Neutral/Alkaline Invertases in Solanum

College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Institute of Vegetables, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
Quzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Quzhou 324000, Zhejiang, China
College of Horticulture and landscape, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
Tianjin Research Center of Agricultural Biotechnology, Tianjin 300192, China
China-Australia Research Centre for Crop Improvement, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 763;
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinformatics and Systems Biology)
The invertase gene family in plants is composed of two subfamilies of enzymes, namely, acid- and neutral/alkaline invertases (cytosolic invertase, CIN). Both can irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose, which are thought to play key roles in carbon metabolism and plant growth. CINs are widely found in plants, but little is reported about this family. In this paper, a comparative genomic approach was used to analyze the CIN gene family in Solanum, including Solanum tuberosum, Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum pennellii, Solanum pimpinellifolium, and Solanum melongena. A total of 40 CINs were identified in five Solanum plants, and sequence features, phylogenetic relationships, motif compositions, gene structure, collinear relationship, and expression profile were further analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed a remarkable conservation of CINs in sequence length, gene number, and molecular weight. The previously verified four amino acid residues (D188, E414, Arg430, and Ser547) were also observed in 39 out of 40 CINs in our study, showing to be deeply conserved. The CIN gene family could be distinguished into groups α and β, and α is further subdivided into subgroups α1 and α2 in our phylogenetic tree. More remarkably, each species has an average of four CINs in the α and β groups. Marked interspecies conservation and collinearity of CINs were also further revealed by chromosome mapping. Exon–intron configuration and conserved motifs were consistent in each of these α and β groups on the basis of in silico analysis. Expression analysis indicated that CINs were constitutively expressed and share similar expression profiles in all tested samples from S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum. In addition, in CIN genes of the tomato and potato in response to abiotic and biotic stresses, phytohormones also performed. Overall, CINs in Solanum were encoded by a small and highly conserved gene family, possibly reflecting structural and functional conservation in Solanum. These results lay the foundation for further expounding the functional characterization of CIN genes and are also significant for understanding the evolutionary profiling of the CIN gene family in Solanum.
Keywords: evolution; genome size; sequenced plants; evolutionary time; crystal structures evolution; genome size; sequenced plants; evolutionary time; crystal structures
MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, L.; Guo, Q.; Chai, S.; Cheng, Y.; Ruan, M.; Ye, Q.; Wang, R.; Yao, Z.; Zhou, G.; Li, Z.; Deng, M.; Jin, F.; Liu, L.; Wan, H. Evolutionary Conservation and Expression Patterns of Neutral/Alkaline Invertases in Solanum. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 763.

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