Next Article in Journal
Preparation and Evaluation of the ZnO NP–Ampicillin/Sulbactam Nanoantibiotic: Optimization of Formulation Variables Using RSM Coupled GA Method and Antibacterial Activities
Previous Article in Journal
Nucleotide Transport and Metabolism in Diatoms
Open AccessArticle

Evolutionary Conservation and Expression Patterns of Neutral/Alkaline Invertases in Solanum

1
College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
2
State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Institute of Vegetables, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
3
Quzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Quzhou 324000, Zhejiang, China
4
College of Horticulture and landscape, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
5
Tianjin Research Center of Agricultural Biotechnology, Tianjin 300192, China
6
China-Australia Research Centre for Crop Improvement, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120763
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinformatics and Systems Biology)
The invertase gene family in plants is composed of two subfamilies of enzymes, namely, acid- and neutral/alkaline invertases (cytosolic invertase, CIN). Both can irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose, which are thought to play key roles in carbon metabolism and plant growth. CINs are widely found in plants, but little is reported about this family. In this paper, a comparative genomic approach was used to analyze the CIN gene family in Solanum, including Solanum tuberosum, Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum pennellii, Solanum pimpinellifolium, and Solanum melongena. A total of 40 CINs were identified in five Solanum plants, and sequence features, phylogenetic relationships, motif compositions, gene structure, collinear relationship, and expression profile were further analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed a remarkable conservation of CINs in sequence length, gene number, and molecular weight. The previously verified four amino acid residues (D188, E414, Arg430, and Ser547) were also observed in 39 out of 40 CINs in our study, showing to be deeply conserved. The CIN gene family could be distinguished into groups α and β, and α is further subdivided into subgroups α1 and α2 in our phylogenetic tree. More remarkably, each species has an average of four CINs in the α and β groups. Marked interspecies conservation and collinearity of CINs were also further revealed by chromosome mapping. Exon–intron configuration and conserved motifs were consistent in each of these α and β groups on the basis of in silico analysis. Expression analysis indicated that CINs were constitutively expressed and share similar expression profiles in all tested samples from S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum. In addition, in CIN genes of the tomato and potato in response to abiotic and biotic stresses, phytohormones also performed. Overall, CINs in Solanum were encoded by a small and highly conserved gene family, possibly reflecting structural and functional conservation in Solanum. These results lay the foundation for further expounding the functional characterization of CIN genes and are also significant for understanding the evolutionary profiling of the CIN gene family in Solanum.
Keywords: evolution; genome size; sequenced plants; evolutionary time; crystal structures evolution; genome size; sequenced plants; evolutionary time; crystal structures
MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, L.; Guo, Q.; Chai, S.; Cheng, Y.; Ruan, M.; Ye, Q.; Wang, R.; Yao, Z.; Zhou, G.; Li, Z.; Deng, M.; Jin, F.; Liu, L.; Wan, H. Evolutionary Conservation and Expression Patterns of Neutral/Alkaline Invertases in Solanum. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 763.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop