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A Design of Experiments Strategy to Enhance the Recovery of Polyphenolic Compounds from Vitis vinifera By-Products through Heat Reflux Extraction
Open AccessArticle

Elicitors and Pre-Fermentative Cold Maceration: Effects on Polyphenol Concentration in Monastrell Grapes and Wines

Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), Ctra. La Alberca s/n, 30150 Murcia, Spain
Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 671;
Received: 20 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry of Wine and Beer)
Vitis vinifera L cv Monastrell is the main red grape variety grown for vinification in the Denomination of Origin Jumilla (southeast Spain). Different strategies are still being tested to optimize available resources both in terms of the environment and to achieve wines with better organoleptic and functional characteristics. The objective of this work was to combine two strategies: the application of methyl jasmonate (MeJ), benzothiadiazole (BTH), and methyl jasmonate + benzothiadiazole (MeJ + BTH) elicitors to Monastrell leaves, and pre-fermentative cold maceration. During two seasons, the experiment was carried out to improve the extraction of the phenolic compounds, whose levels may have increased following the application of elicitors in the field, and to assess the effect of both strategies on the wine quality. Discriminant analysis revealed that independently of the meteorological conditions during both years, the pre-harvest response to the application of elicitors MeJ, BTH, and MeJ + BTH, induced increases in total anthocyanin concentration of the treated grapes, allowing the distinction of the treatments. This analysis also allowed the distinction between the types of maceration used, showing greater extraction of phenolic compounds by the application of low temperature, giving wines with a higher index of total phenols, a greater intensity of color, and a lower luminosity. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic compounds; methyl jasmonate; benzothiadiazole; flavonols phenolic compounds; methyl jasmonate; benzothiadiazole; flavonols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paladines-Quezada, D.F.; Moreno-Olivares, J.D.; Fernández-Fernández, J.I.; Bleda-Sánchez, J.A.; Martínez-Moreno, A.; Gil-Muñoz, R. Elicitors and Pre-Fermentative Cold Maceration: Effects on Polyphenol Concentration in Monastrell Grapes and Wines. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 671.

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