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Transport Properties for Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems: A Brief Review of the Importance of Their Study in Biological Systems
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Biomolecules 2019, 9(1), 3;

Cyclodextrins in Parkinson’s Disease

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Properties for Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems)
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Parkinson’s disease is a movement disorder characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons that has been object of study by the scientific community through the last decades. However, nowadays there is still no treatment to cure it, although there are drugs available, with limited efficacy, to relieve the symptoms or replenish the cells with dopamine to supply the lack of dopaminergic neurons. This work was structured in two parts. In the first one, binary aqueous solutions of L-dopa and cyclodextrins were studied. In the second part, ternary aqueous solutions of L-dopa were studied with each of the selected cyclodextrins. In all cases, thermodynamic properties (density, partial molar volume and thermodynamic transfer functions for temperatures between 294.15 ± 0.01 K and 312.15 ± 0.01 K) and transport properties (mutual diffusion coefficients, viscosity, transfer viscosity at 298.15 ± 0.01 K and 310.15 ± 0.01 K) were studied. Using theoretical models to adjust the experimental data obtained for the diffusion coefficients and for the apparent molar volumes, in the ternary aqueous solutions, it was possible to estimate the values to the L-dopa-cyclodextrin association constant. For the aqueous ternary solutes, the partial molar volume of transfer of levodopa in the presence of the cyclodextrins, the partial molar expansibility at infinite dilution and from this, the Hepler constant, were determined. Also, the values of Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), enthalpy (ΔH0) and entropy (ΔS0) were determined. From the obtained information, it was possible to characterize the molecular interactions, as well as to identify some structural characteristics of the controlled drug delivery systems under study and to estimate the influence of the cyclodextrin substituent groups, and, also, the temperature effect in the interaction levodopa-cyclodextrin. It is our intent to attain information about the mechanism of possible new systems for controlled drug delivery systems, throughout an alternative perspective, which could allow to increase its effectiveness in the Parkinson’s treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson; levodopa; cyclodextrins; controlled drug delivery systems; transport properties; thermodynamic properties; density; partial molar volumes; viscosity; mutual diffusion coefficients Parkinson; levodopa; cyclodextrins; controlled drug delivery systems; transport properties; thermodynamic properties; density; partial molar volumes; viscosity; mutual diffusion coefficients

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Barros, M.C.F.; Ribeiro, A.C.F.; Esteso, M.A. Cyclodextrins in Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 3.

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