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Biomolecules 2019, 9(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9030090

Calixarenes: Generalities and Their Role in Improving the Solubility, Biocompatibility, Stability, Bioavailability, Detection, and Transport of Biomolecules

1
Grupo GICRIM, Programa de Investigación Criminal, Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Avenida Circunvalar No. 60-00, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
2
Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, Cr. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá 111071, Colombia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Properties for Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems)
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Abstract

The properties and characteristics of calix[n]arenes are described, as well as their capacity to form amphiphilic assemblies by means of the design of synthetic macrocycles with a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. Their interaction with various substances of interest in pharmacy, engineering, and medicine is also described. In particular, the role of the calix[n]arenes in the detection of dopamine, the design of vesicles and liposomes employed in the manufacture of systems of controlled release drugs used in the treatment of cancer, and their role in improving the solubility of testosterone and anthelmintic drugs and the biocompatibility of biomaterials useful for the manufacture of synthetic organs is emphasized. The versatility of these macrocycles, able to vary in size, shape, functional groups, and hydrophobicity and to recognize various biomolecules and molecules with biological activity without causing cytotoxicity is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: calixarenes; complexion; amphiphilic assemblies; micelles; vesicles; liposomes; nanoparticles; encapsulation; transport of drugs; bioavailability; solubility of the drugs calixarenes; complexion; amphiphilic assemblies; micelles; vesicles; liposomes; nanoparticles; encapsulation; transport of drugs; bioavailability; solubility of the drugs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Español, E.S.; Villamil, M.M. Calixarenes: Generalities and Their Role in Improving the Solubility, Biocompatibility, Stability, Bioavailability, Detection, and Transport of Biomolecules. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 90.

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