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Biomolecules 2018, 8(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8040178

Transport Properties for Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems: A Brief Review of the Importance of Their Study in Biological Systems

1
Department of Chemistry, Coimbra Chemistry Centre, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
2
U.D. Química Física, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Properties for Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems)
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Abstract

The goal of this work was to comprehensive study the transport properties of controlled-release systems for the safe and reliable delivery of drugs. Special emphasis has been placed on the measurement of the diffusion of drugs, alone or in combination with carrier molecules for enhanced solubility and facilitated transport. These studies have provided detailed comprehensive information—both kinetic and thermodynamic—for the design and operation of systems for the controlled release and delivery of drugs. Cyclodextrins are among the most important carriers used in these systems. The basis for their popularity is the ability of these materials to solubilize poorly soluble drugs, generally resulting in striking increases in their water solubilities. The techniques used in these investigations include pulse voltammetry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopy, ultrasonic relaxation, and dissolution kinetics. Transport in these systems is a mutual diffusion process involving coupled fluxes of drugs and carrier molecules driven by concentration gradients. Owing to a strong association in these multicomponent systems, it is not uncommon for a diffusing solute to drive substantial coupled fluxes of other solutes, mixed electrolytes, or polymers. Thus, diffusion data, including cross-diffusion coefficients for coupled transport, are essential in order to understand the rates of many processes involving mass transport driven by chemical concentration gradients, as crystal growth and dissolution, solubilization, membrane transport, and diffusion-limited chemical reactions are all relevant to the design of controlled-release systems. While numerous studies have been carried out on these systems, few have considered the transport behavior for controlled-release systems. To remedy this situation, we decided to measure mutual diffusion coefficients for coupled diffusion in a variety of drug–carrier solutions. In summary, the main objective of the present work was to understand the physical chemistry of carrier-mediated transport phenomena in systems of controlled drug release. View Full-Text
Keywords: solutions; transport properties drug–carriers; multicomponent systems solutions; transport properties drug–carriers; multicomponent systems
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Ribeiro, A.C.F.; Esteso, M.A. Transport Properties for Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems: A Brief Review of the Importance of Their Study in Biological Systems. Biomolecules 2018, 8, 178.

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