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Open AccessArticle

Involvement of Opioid System and TRPM8/TRPA1 Channels in the Antinociceptive Effect of Spirulina platensis

1
Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Immunopharmacology (LAIF), Department of Health Sciences, Campus Araranguá, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Araranguá 88906-072, Brazil
2
Post-Graduate Program of Neuroscience, Center of Biological Science, Campus Florianópolis, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
5
Endocannabinoid Research Group, 80078 Pozzuoli, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vito Verardo
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040592
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants)
Spirulina platensis is a “super-food” and has attracted researchers’ attention due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic properties. Herein, we investigated the antinociceptive effects of Spirulina in different rodent behavior models of inflammatory pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with Spirulina (3–300 mg/kg, p.o.), indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.9% NaCl 10 mL/kg). Behavioral tests were performed with administration of acetic acid (0.6%, i.p.), formalin 2.7% (formaldehyde 1%, i.pl.), menthol (1.2 µmol/paw, i.pl.), cinnamaldehyde (10 nmol/paw, i.pl.), capsaicin (1.6 µg/paw, i.pl.), glutamate (20 µmol/paw, i.pl.), or naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The animals were also exposed to the rotarod and open field test to determine possible effects of Spirulina on locomotion and motor coordination. The quantitative phytochemical assays exhibited that Spirulina contains significant concentrations of total phenols and flavonoid contents, as well as it showed a powerful antioxidant effect with the highest scavenging activity. Oral administration of Spirulina completely inhibited the abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid (ED50 = 20.51 mg/kg). Spirulina treatment showed significant inhibition of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior during the inflammatory phase, and the opioid-selective antagonist markedly blocked this effect. Furthermore, our data indicate that the mechanisms underlying Spirulina analgesia appear to be related to its ability to modulate TRMP8 and TRPA1, but not by TRPV1 or glutamatergic system. Spirulina represents an orally active and safe natural analgesic that exhibits great therapeutic potential for managing inflammatory pain disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; pain; opioid system; ionic channel; functional food; analgesic Spirulina platensis; pain; opioid system; ionic channel; functional food; analgesic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Freitas, M.A.; Vasconcelos, A.; Gonçalves, E.C.D.; Ferrarini, E.G.; Vieira, G.B.; Cicia, D.; Cola, M.; Capasso, R.; Dutra, R.C. Involvement of Opioid System and TRPM8/TRPA1 Channels in the Antinociceptive Effect of Spirulina platensis. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040592

AMA Style

Freitas MA, Vasconcelos A, Gonçalves ECD, Ferrarini EG, Vieira GB, Cicia D, Cola M, Capasso R, Dutra RC. Involvement of Opioid System and TRPM8/TRPA1 Channels in the Antinociceptive Effect of Spirulina platensis. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(4):592. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Freitas, Mariana A.; Vasconcelos, Amanda; Gonçalves, Elaine C.D.; Ferrarini, Eduarda G.; Vieira, Gabriela B.; Cicia, Donatella; Cola, Maíra; Capasso, Raffaele; Dutra, Rafael C. 2021. "Involvement of Opioid System and TRPM8/TRPA1 Channels in the Antinociceptive Effect of Spirulina platensis" Biomolecules 11, no. 4: 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040592

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