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IRE1 Endoribonuclease Activity Modulates Hypoxic HIF-1α Signaling in Human Endothelial Cells
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Hypoxia as a Driving Force of Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming and Differentiation to Endothelial Cells

1
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
2
Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-837 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(12), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10121614
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 29 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Human Endothelium)
Inadequate supply of oxygen (O2) is a hallmark of many diseases, in particular those related to the cardiovascular system. On the other hand, tissue hypoxia is an important factor regulating (normal) embryogenesis and differentiation of stem cells at the early stages of embryonic development. In culture, hypoxic conditions may facilitate the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which may serve as a valuable tool for disease modeling. Endothelial cells (ECs), multifunctional components of vascular structures, may be obtained from iPSCs and subsequently used in various (hypoxia-related) disease models to investigate vascular dysfunctions. Although iPSC-ECs demonstrated functionality in vitro and in vivo, ongoing studies are conducted to increase the efficiency of differentiation and to establish the most productive protocols for the application of patient-derived cells in clinics. In this review, we highlight recent discoveries on the role of hypoxia in the derivation of ESCs and the generation of iPSCs. We also summarize the existing protocols of hypoxia-driven differentiation of iPSCs toward ECs and discuss their possible applications in disease modeling and treatment of hypoxia-related disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: iPSCs; iPSC-ECs; endothelial cells; hypoxia; HIFs; CRISPR-Cas9 iPSCs; iPSC-ECs; endothelial cells; hypoxia; HIFs; CRISPR-Cas9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Podkalicka, P.; Stępniewski, J.; Mucha, O.; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, N.; Dulak, J.; Łoboda, A. Hypoxia as a Driving Force of Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming and Differentiation to Endothelial Cells. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1614.

AMA Style

Podkalicka P, Stępniewski J, Mucha O, Kachamakova-Trojanowska N, Dulak J, Łoboda A. Hypoxia as a Driving Force of Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming and Differentiation to Endothelial Cells. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(12):1614.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Podkalicka, Paulina; Stępniewski, Jacek; Mucha, Olga; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Neli; Dulak, Józef; Łoboda, Agnieszka. 2020. "Hypoxia as a Driving Force of Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming and Differentiation to Endothelial Cells" Biomolecules 10, no. 12: 1614.

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