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Metabolites 2019, 9(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9040071

Plasma Free Fatty Acids Metabolic Profile with LC-MS and Appetite-Related Hormones in South Asian and White European Men in Relation to Adiposity, Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Applied & Human Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy & Chemistry, Kingston University London, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, UK
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 23924, Safat, Kuwait City 13110, Kuwait
3
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The John Arbuthnott Building, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK
4
National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
5
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Infirmary Square, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Metabonomics)
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Abstract

South Asians have a greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk than white Europeans, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined ethnic differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) metabolic profile (assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), appetite-related hormones and traditional CVD and T2D risk markers in blood samples collected from 16 South Asian and 16 white European men and explored associations with body composition, objectively-measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. South Asians exhibited higher concentrations of five FFAs (laurate, myristate, palmitate, linolenic, linoleate; p ≤ 0.040), lower acylated ghrelin (ES = 1.00, p = 0.008) and higher leptin (ES = 1.11, p = 0.004) than white Europeans; total peptide YY was similar between groups (p = 0.381). South Asians exhibited elevated fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, triacylglycerol and ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lower fasting HDL-C (all ES ≥ 0.74, p ≤ 0.053). Controlling for body fat percentage (assessed using air displacement plethysmography) attenuated these differences. Despite similar habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (ES = 0.18, p = 0.675), V ˙ O2max was lower in South Asians (ES = 1.36, p = 0.001). Circulating FFAs in South Asians were positively correlated with body fat percentage (r2 = 0.92), body mass (r2 = 0.86) and AUC glucose (r2 = 0.89) whereas in white Europeans FFAs were negatively correlated with total step counts (r2 = 0.96). In conclusion, South Asians exhibited a different FFA profile, lower ghrelin, higher leptin, impaired CVD and T2D risk markers and lower cardiorespiratory fitness than white Europeans. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; free fatty acids; cardiovascular disease; Type 2 diabetes; South Asian; physical activity; cardiorespiratory fitness; inflammation; appetite hormones; metabolic markers metabolomics; free fatty acids; cardiovascular disease; Type 2 diabetes; South Asian; physical activity; cardiorespiratory fitness; inflammation; appetite hormones; metabolic markers
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Benedetti, S.; Al-Tannak, N.F.; Alzharani, M.; Moir, H.J.; Stensel, D.J.; Thackray, A.E.; Naughton, D.P.; Dorak, M.T.; Spendiff, O.; Hill, N.; Watson, D.G.; Allgrove, J. Plasma Free Fatty Acids Metabolic Profile with LC-MS and Appetite-Related Hormones in South Asian and White European Men in Relation to Adiposity, Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Cross-Sectional Study. Metabolites 2019, 9, 71.

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