Next Article in Journal
Using Expert Driven Machine Learning to Enhance Dynamic Metabolomics Data Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Plasma Free Fatty Acids Metabolic Profile with LC-MS and Appetite-Related Hormones in South Asian and White European Men in Relation to Adiposity, Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Critical Review of Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Breath and In Vitro Cell Culture for Detection of Lung Cancer
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Exercise Training on Myocardial and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism by MR Spectroscopy in Rats with Heart Failure

Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Clinic of Cardiology, St Olavs Hospital, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Clinic of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Olavs Hospital, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this paper.
Metabolites 2019, 9(3), 53;
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Metabonomics)
PDF [3364 KB, uploaded 19 March 2019]
  |     |  


The metabolism and performance of myocardial and skeletal muscle are impaired in heart failure (HF) patients. Exercise training improves the performance and benefits the quality of life in HF patients. The purpose of the present study was to determine the metabolic profiles in myocardial and skeletal muscle in HF and exercise training using MRS, and thus to identify targets for clinical MRS in vivo. After surgically establishing HF in rats, we randomized the rats to exercise training programs of different intensities. After the final training session, rats were sacrificed and tissues from the myocardial and skeletal muscle were extracted. Magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from these extracts, and principal component and metabolic enrichment analysis were used to assess the differences in metabolic profiles. The results indicated that HF affected myocardial metabolism by changing multiple metabolites, whereas it had a limited effect on skeletal muscle metabolism. Moreover, exercise training mainly altered the metabolite distribution in skeletal muscle, indicating regulation of metabolic pathways of taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and carnitine synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; MRS; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; cardiac metabolism metabolomics; MRS; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; cardiac metabolism

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shi, M.; Ellingsen, Ø.; Bathen, T.F.; Høydal, M.A.; Stølen, T.; Esmaeili, M. The Effect of Exercise Training on Myocardial and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism by MR Spectroscopy in Rats with Heart Failure. Metabolites 2019, 9, 53.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top