A New Perspective on the Health Benefits of Moderate Beer Consumption: Involvement of the Gut Microbiota
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Virgen de la Victoria Hospital (IBIMA), Malaga University, 29010 Malaga, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de la Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 29010 Málaga, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110272
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Health and Weight)
Beer is the most widely consumed fermented beverage in the world. A moderate consumption of beer has been related to important healthy outcomes, although the mechanisms have not been fully understood. Beer contains only a few raw ingredients but transformations that occur during the brewing process turn beer into a beverage that is enriched in micronutrients. Beer also contains an important number of phenolic compounds and it could be considered to be a source of dietary polyphenols. On the other hand, gut microbiota is now attracting special attention due to its metabolic effects and as because polyphenols are known to interact with gut microbiota. Among others, ferulic acid, xanthohumol, catechins, epicatechins, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, and rutin are some of the beer polyphenols that have been related to microbiota. However, scarce literature exists about the effects of moderate beer consumption on gut microbiota. In this review, we focus on the relationship between beer polyphenols and gut microbiota, with special emphasis on the health outcomes.