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Adipokines and Adipose Tissue-Related Metabolites, Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease

1
Graduate Program in Health Sciences (Cardiology), Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul/University Foundation of Cardiology (IC/FUC), Princesa Isabel Avenue, 395, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 90040-371, Brazil
2
HCor Research Institute, Coracao Hospital (IP-HCor), Abílio Soares Street, 250, São Paulo, São Paulo 04004-05, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010032
Received: 24 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Health and Weight)
Adipose tissue is a complex structure responsible for fat storage and releasing polypeptides (adipokines) and metabolites, with systemic actions including body weight balance, appetite regulation, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure control. Signals sent from different tissues are generated and integrated in adipose tissue; thus, there is a close connection between this endocrine organ and different organs and systems such as the gut and the cardiovascular system. It is known that functional foods, especially different nuts, may be related to a net of molecular mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic health. Despite being energy-dense foods, nut consumption has been associated with no weight gain, weight loss, and lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. Several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption on glucose control, appetite suppression, metabolites related to adipose tissue and gut microbiota, and on adipokines due to their fatty acid profile, vegetable proteins, l-arginine, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, and phytosterols. The aim of this review is to briefly describe possible mechanisms implicated in weight homeostasis related to different nuts, as well as studies that have evaluated the effects of nut consumption on adipokines and metabolites related to adipose tissue and gut microbiota in animal models, healthy individuals, and primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue; adipokines; nuts; cardiovascular diseases; acetate; propionate; uric acid adipose tissue; adipokines; nuts; cardiovascular diseases; acetate; propionate; uric acid
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Weschenfelder, C.; Schaan de Quadros, A.; Lorenzon dos Santos, J.; Bueno Garofallo, S.; Marcadenti, A. Adipokines and Adipose Tissue-Related Metabolites, Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease. Metabolites 2020, 10, 32.

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