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Review

Parameters of the Endocannabinoid System as Novel Biomarkers in Sepsis and Septic Shock

1
Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
2
Department of Anesthesia & Perioperative Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2017, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo7040055
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and/or Biomarkers for Drug Discovery)
Sepsis represents a dysregulated immune response to infection, with a continuum of severity progressing to septic shock. This dysregulated response generally follows a pattern by which an initial hyperinflammatory phase is followed by a state of sepsis-associated immunosuppression. Major challenges in improving sepsis care include developing strategies to ensure early and accurate identification and diagnosis of the disease process, improving our ability to predict outcomes and stratify patients, and the need for novel sepsis-specific treatments such as immunomodulation. Biomarkers offer promise with all three of these challenges and are likely also to be the solution to determining a patient’s immune status; something that is critical in guiding effective and safe immunomodulatory therapy. Currently available biomarkers used in sepsis lack sensitivity and specificity, among other significant shortcomings. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an emerging topic of research with evidence suggesting a ubiquitous presence on both central and peripheral tissues, including an intrinsic link with immune function. This review will first discuss the state of sepsis biomarkers and lack of available treatments, followed by an introduction to the ECS and a discussion of its potential to provide novel biomarkers and treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: sepsis; endocannabinoid system; septic shock; inflammation; immune system; biomarker; cannabinoid; immunomodulation sepsis; endocannabinoid system; septic shock; inflammation; immune system; biomarker; cannabinoid; immunomodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lafreniere, J.D.; Lehmann, C. Parameters of the Endocannabinoid System as Novel Biomarkers in Sepsis and Septic Shock. Metabolites 2017, 7, 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo7040055

AMA Style

Lafreniere JD, Lehmann C. Parameters of the Endocannabinoid System as Novel Biomarkers in Sepsis and Septic Shock. Metabolites. 2017; 7(4):55. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo7040055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lafreniere, J. D., and Christian Lehmann. 2017. "Parameters of the Endocannabinoid System as Novel Biomarkers in Sepsis and Septic Shock" Metabolites 7, no. 4: 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo7040055

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