Short-chain carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones are products and regulators of many important metabolic pathways. Their levels in biofluids and tissues reflect the status of specific metabolic reactions, the homeostasis of the whole metabolic system and the wellbeing of a biological entity. In this study, the use of 2-hydrazinoquinoline (HQ) as a novel derivatization agent was explored and optimized for simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones in biological samples. The formation of carboxylic acid derivative is attributed to the esterification reaction between HQ and a carboxyl group, while the production of aldehyde and ketone derivatives is through the formation of Schiff bases between HQ and a carbonyl group. The compatibility of HQ with biological samples was demonstrated by derivatizing urine, serum and liver extract samples. Using this HQ-based approach, the kinetics of type 1 diabetes-induced metabolic changes was characterized by the LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of urine samples from streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. Subsequently, carboxylic acid, aldehyde and ketone metabolites associated with STZ-elicited disruption of nutrient and energy metabolism were conveniently identified and elucidated. Overall, HQ derivatization of carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones could serve as a useful tool for the LC-MS-based metabolomic investigation of endogenous metabolism.