Next Article in Journal
Computational Analyses of Spectral Trees from Electrospray Multi-Stage Mass Spectrometry to Aid Metabolite Identification
Next Article in Special Issue
Applications of NMR in Dairy Research
Previous Article in Journal
2-Hydrazinoquinoline as a Derivatization Agent for LC-MS-Based Metabolomic Investigation of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Future of NMR Metabolomics in Cancer Therapy: Towards Personalizing Treatment and Developing Targeted Drugs?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metabolites 2013, 3(4), 1011-1035;

Studies of Secondary Melanoma on C57BL/6J Mouse Liver Using 1H NMR Metabolomics

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Application)
Full-Text   |   PDF [722 KB, uploaded 1 November 2013]   |  


NMR metabolomics, consisting of solid state high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) 1H-NMR, liquid state high resolution 1H-NMR, and principal components analysis (PCA) has been used to study secondary metastatic B16-F10 melanoma in C57BL/6J mouse liver. The melanoma group can be differentiated from its control group by PCA analysis of the estimates of absolute concentrations from liquid state 1H-NMR spectra on liver tissue extracts or by the estimates of absolute peak intensities of metabolites from 1H HR-MAS-NMR data on intact liver tissues. In particular, we found that the estimates of absolute concentrations of glutamate, creatine, fumarate and cholesterol are elevated in the melanoma group as compared to controls, while the estimates of absolute concentrations of succinate, glycine, glucose, and the family of linear lipids including long chain fatty acids, total choline and acyl glycerol are decreased. The ratio of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) to phosphocholine (PCho) is increased by about 1.5 fold in the melanoma group, while the estimate of absolute concentration of total choline is actually lower in melanoma mice. These results suggest the following picture in secondary melanoma metastasis: Linear lipid levels are decreased by beta oxidation in the melanoma group, which contributes to an increase in the synthesis of cholesterol, and also provides an energy source input for TCA cycle. These findings suggest a link between lipid oxidation, the TCA cycle and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) signal pathway in tumor metastases. Thus, this study indicates that the metabolic profile derived from NMR analysis can provide a valuable bio-signature of malignancy and cell hypoxia in metastatic melanoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1H HR-MAS; NMR; B16-F10 melanoma; metabolomics; multivariate analysis; PCA 1H HR-MAS; NMR; B16-F10 melanoma; metabolomics; multivariate analysis; PCA

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Feng, J.; Isern, N.G.; Burton, S.D.; Hu, J.Z. Studies of Secondary Melanoma on C57BL/6J Mouse Liver Using 1H NMR Metabolomics. Metabolites 2013, 3, 1011-1035.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top