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Metabolites 2013, 3(3), 718-740;

1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada
Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, Ontario M9P 3V6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response to Environment and Stress Metabolism)
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1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS), betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA) of contaminants is not clearly defined. View Full-Text
Keywords: PFOS; metabolic profiling; mode of action; PFAAs; earthworms PFOS; metabolic profiling; mode of action; PFAAs; earthworms

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Lankadurai, B.P.; Furdui, V.I.; Reiner, E.J.; Simpson, A.J.; Simpson, M.J. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil. Metabolites 2013, 3, 718-740.

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