Intestinal microbiota play a considerable role in the host’s organism, broadly affecting its organs and tissues. The kidney can also be the target of the microbiome and its metabolites (especially short-chain fatty acids), which can influence renal tissue, both by direct action and through modulation of the immune response. This impact is crucial, especially during kidney injury, because the modulation of inflammation or reparative processes could affect the severity of the resulting damage or recovery of kidney function. In this study, we compared the composition of rat gut microbiota with its outcome, in experimental acute ischemic kidney injury and named the bacterial taxa that play putatively negative or positive roles in the progression of ischemic kidney injury. We investigated the link between serum creatinine, urea, and a number of metabolites (acylcarnitines and amino acids), and the relative abundance of various bacterial taxa in rat feces. Our analysis revealed an increase in levels of 32 acylcarnitines in serum, after renal ischemia/reperfusion and correlation with creatinine and urea, while levels of three amino acids (tyrosine, tryptophan, and proline) had decreased. We detected associations between bacterial abundance and metabolite levels, using a compositionality-aware approach—Rothia
levels were positively associated with creatinine and urea levels, respectively. Our findings indicate that the gut microbial community contains specific members whose presence might ameliorate or, on the contrary, aggravate ischemic kidney injury. These bacterial taxa could present perspective targets for therapeutical interventions in kidney pathologies, including acute kidney injury.
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