Next Article in Journal
Gut Microbiota is the Key to the Antidepressant Effect of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San
Previous Article in Journal
Association of Circulating COMP and YKL-40 as Markers of Metabolic Changes of Cartilage with Adipocytokines in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Case Report of Switching from Specific Vendor-Based to R-Based Pipelines for Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics
Open AccessArticle

Use of Chemometrics for Correlating Carobs Nutritional Compositional Values with Geographic Origin

1
State General Laboratory, P.O.Box 28648, Nicosia, Cyprus
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10020062 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 10 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics Methodologies and Applications)
Carobs unique compositional and biological synthesis enables their characterization as functional foods. In the present study, 76 samples derived from fruit and seeds of carobs, with origin from the countries of the Mediterranean region (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Jordan and Palestine) were analyzed for their nutritional composition, in order to identify potential markers for their provenance and address the carobs’ authenticity issue. Moisture, ash, fat, proteins, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), dietary fibers and minerals (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) were estimated following official methods. Due to the large number of data (76 samples × 17 parameters × 7 countries), chemometric techniques were employed to process them and extract conclusions. The samples of different geographical origin were discriminated with 79% success in total. The carobs from Cyprus, Italy and Spain were correctly classified without error. The main discriminators were found to be the dietary fibers, the carbohydrates and Cu, Zn and Mn, which emphasize their specific nutritional added value to the product and the country of origin impact. The results suggest that the proposed analytical approach is a powerful tool that enables the discrimination of carobs based on their country of origin. This research contributes to authenticity of carobs, adding value to local products.
Keywords: nutrients; food constituents; differential characteristics; multivariate data analysis nutrients; food constituents; differential characteristics; multivariate data analysis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kokkinofta, R.; Yiannopoulos, S.; Stylianou, M.A.; Agapiou, A. Use of Chemometrics for Correlating Carobs Nutritional Compositional Values with Geographic Origin. Metabolites 2020, 10, 62.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop