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Open AccessArticle

The Antimethanogenic Nitrocompounds Can be Cleaved into Nitrite by Rumen Microorganisms: A Comparison of Nitroethane, 2-Nitroethanol, and 2-Nitro-1-propanol

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010015
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 25 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Microbiota Metabolism)
A class of aliphatic short chain nitrocompounds have been reported as being capable of CH4 reduction both in vitro and in vivo. However, the laboratory evidence associated with the metabolic fate of nitrocompounds in the rumen has not been well documented. The present study was conducted to compare in vitro degradation and metabolism of nitroethane (NE), 2-nitroethanol (NEOH), and 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) incubated with mixed rumen microorganisms of dairy cows. After 10 mM supplementation of nitrocompounds, a serious of batch cultures were carried out for 120 h under the presence of two substrates differing in the ratio of maize meal to alfalfa hay (HF, 1:4; LF, 4:1). Compared to the control, methane production was reduced by 59% in NPOH and by >97% in both NE and NEOH, and such antimethanogenic effects were more pronounced in the LF than the HF group. Although NE, NEOH, and NPOH addition did not alter total VFA production, the rumen fermentation pattern shifted toward increasing propionate and butyrate and decreasing acetate production. The kinetic disappearance of each nitrocompound was well fitted to the one-compartment model, and the disappearance rate (k, %/h) of NE was 2.6 to 5.2 times greater than those of NEOH and NPOH. Higher intermediates of nitrite occurred in NEOH in comparison with NPOH and NE while ammonia N production was lowest in NEOH. Consequently, a stepwise accumulation of bacterial crude protein (BCP) in response to the nitrocompound addition was observed in both the HF and LF group. In brief, both NE and NEOH in comparison with NPOH presented greater antimethanogenic activity via the shift of rumen fermentation. In addition, the present study provided the first direct evidence that rumen microbes were able to cleave these nitrocompounds into nitrite, and the subsequent metabolism of nitrite into ammonia N may enhance the growth of rumen microbes or promote microbial activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitroethane; 2-nitroethanol; 2-nitro-1-propanol; rumen microorganism; degradation; metabolism; in vitro nitroethane; 2-nitroethanol; 2-nitro-1-propanol; rumen microorganism; degradation; metabolism; in vitro
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Zhang, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.-L.; Wang, W.-K.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Si, X.-M.; Wang, Y.-J.; Wang, W.; Cao, Z.-J.; Li, S.-L.; Yang, H.-J. The Antimethanogenic Nitrocompounds Can be Cleaved into Nitrite by Rumen Microorganisms: A Comparison of Nitroethane, 2-Nitroethanol, and 2-Nitro-1-propanol. Metabolites 2020, 10, 15.

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