Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) possess numerous and unique characteristics, such as high channel error-rate, severe link-layer contentions, frequent link breakage (due to node mobility), and dissimilar path properties (e.g., bandwidth, delay, and loss rate) that make these networks different from the traditional ones. These characteristics seriously interfere with communication and hence, ultimately degrade the overall performance in terms of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, network throughput, and network overhead. The traditional referenced layered strict architecture is not capable of dealing with MANET characteristics. Along with this, the most important apprehension in the intent of MANETs is the battery-power consumption, which relies on non-renewable sources of energy. Even though improvements in battery design have not yet reached that great a level, the majority of the routing protocols have not emphasized energy consumption at all. Such a challenging aspect has gained remarkable attention from the researchers, which inspired us to accomplish an extensive literature survey on power-aware optimization approaches in MANETs. This survey comprehensively covers power-aware state-of-the-art schemes for each suggested group, major findings, crucial structures, advantages, and design challenges. In this survey, we assess the suggested power-aware policies in the past in every aspect so that, in the future, other researchers can find new potential research directions.
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