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Open AccessArticle

Wiener–Granger Causality Theory Supported by a Genetic Algorithm to Characterize Natural Scenery

1
Electrical Engineering Department, Autonomous Metropolitan University Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Leyes de Reforma 1ra Secc, Mexico City 09340, Mexico
2
Electronics Department, Autonomous Metropolitan University Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, C.P., Mexico City 02200, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070726
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract

Image recognition and classification have been widely used for research in computer vision systems. This paper aims to implement a new strategy called Wiener-Granger Causality theory for classifying natural scenery images. This strategy is based on self-content images extracted using a Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) methodology (to obtain different texture features); later, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is implemented to select the most relevant natural elements from the images which share similar causality patterns. The proposed method is comprised of a sequential feature extraction stage, a time series conformation task, a causality estimation phase, causality feature selection throughout the GA implementation (using the classification process into the fitness function). A classification stage was implemented and 700 images of natural scenery were used for validating the results. Tested in the distribution system implementation, the technical efficiency of the developed system is 100% and 96% for resubstitution and cross-validation methodologies, respectively. This proposal could help with recognizing natural scenarios in the navigation of an autonomous car or possibly a drone, being an important element in the safety of autonomous vehicles navigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: classification; content–based image retrieval; genetic algorithms; image retrieval; image classification; Wiener-Granger causality classification; content–based image retrieval; genetic algorithms; image retrieval; image classification; Wiener-Granger causality
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Benavides-Álvarez, C.; Villegas-Cortez, J.; Román-Alonso, G.; Avilés-Cruz, C. Wiener–Granger Causality Theory Supported by a Genetic Algorithm to Characterize Natural Scenery. Electronics 2019, 8, 726.

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