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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Optimal Design of a Wide Area Measurement System Using Hybrid Wireless Sensors and Phasor Measurement Units

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Power Engineering Department, Shahrood University of Technology, 3619995161 Shahrood, Iran
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Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg East, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
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Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP) and INESC TEC, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101085
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
Real-time monitoring of the power system by phasor measurement units (PMUs) leads to the development of such devices in a wide area measurement system (WAMS). However, the power system observability cannot be obtained by employing only PMUs. The communication infrastructure (CI) is a significant part of the WAMS that has to be optimally designed and implemented to collect data from PMUs and deliver them to control centers. In this paper, a novel hybrid wireless sensor network is proposed for the connection of PMUs throughout the system to enable convenient and low-cost communication media. The problem of observability in the communication system is checked along with the optimal placement of PMUs in the power system to reach full observability. A hybrid wireless sensor network including plug-in powered sensor nodes (PPSNs) and energy harvesting sensor nodes (EHSNs) is utilized for increasing the reliability of the communication system. In the proposed co-optimal PMU-sensor placement problem, the main objective is to minimize the total cost of PMU placement and the related communication system, considering full observability of the power system and CI. To achieve better results, the zero-injection bus (ZIB) effect and system observability redundancy index (SORI) are considered as a constraint in the objective function. A binary-coded genetic algorithm is used for solving the proposed mixed-objective optimization problem subject to different technical operating constraints. The proposed method is examined on IEEE 13-bus and IEEE 37-bus test feeder systems. The results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method compared with the conventional methods in this subject area. View Full-Text
Keywords: wide area measurement system (WAMS); phasor measurement unit (PMU); communication infrastructure; observability; hybrid wireless sensor wide area measurement system (WAMS); phasor measurement unit (PMU); communication infrastructure; observability; hybrid wireless sensor
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Bashian, A.; Assili, M.; Anvari-Moghaddam, A.; Catalão, J.P.S. Optimal Design of a Wide Area Measurement System Using Hybrid Wireless Sensors and Phasor Measurement Units. Electronics 2019, 8, 1085.

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