Next Article in Journal
Fully-Integrated Converter for Low-Cost and Low-Size Power Supply in Internet-of-Things Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
Improved Cell Search for mmWave Cellular Networks Using Deterministic Scanning Algorithm with Directional Array Antenna
Previous Article in Journal
Inspection of Metal and Concrete Specimens Using Imaging System with Laser Displacement Sensor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fully Quaternion-Valued Adaptive Beamforming Based on Crossed-Dipole Arrays
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Full-Diversity QO-STBC Technique for Large-Antenna MIMO Systems

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
Maths and Computer Science Department, Novena University, Delta State, Nigeria
Electrical and Computer Science Department, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 2015 Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA), Wrexham, UK, 8–11 September 2015.
Academic Editors: Hamid Bahrami, Xu Zhu and Nicholas J. Kirsch
Electronics 2017, 6(2), 37;
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Antennas and MIMO Communications)
PDF [1035 KB, uploaded 11 May 2017]


The need to achieve high data rates in modern telecommunication systems, such as 5G standard, motivates the study and development of large antenna and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. This study introduces a large antenna-order design of MIMO quasi-orthogonal space-time block code (QO-STBC) system that achieves better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error ratio (BER) performances than the conventional QO-STBCs with the potential for massive MIMO (mMIMO) configurations. Although some earlier MIMO standards were built on orthogonal space-time block codes (O-STBCs), which are limited to two transmit antennas and data rates, the need for higher data rates motivates the exploration of higher antenna configurations using different QO-STBC schemes. The standard QO-STBC offers a higher number of antennas than the O-STBC with the full spatial rate. Unfortunately, also, the standard QO-STBCs are not able to achieve full diversity due to self-interference within their detection matrices; this diminishes the BER performance of the QO-STBC scheme. The detection also involves nonlinear processing, which further complicates the system. To solve these problems, we propose a linear processing design technique (which eliminates the system complexity) for constructing interference-free QO-STBCs and that also achieves full diversity using Hadamard modal matrices with the potential for mMIMO design. Since the modal matrices that orthogonalize QO-STBC are not sparse, our proposal also supports O-STBCs with a well-behaved peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and better BER. The results of the proposed QO-STBC outperform other full diversity techniques including Givens-rotation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) techniques by 15 dB for both MIMO and multiple-input single-output (MISO) antenna configurations at 10 3 BER. The proposed interference-free QO-STBC is also implemented for 16 × N R and 32 × N R MIMO systems, where N R 2 . We demonstrate 8, 16 and 32 transmit antenna-enabled MIMO systems with the potential for mMIMO design applications with attractive BER and PAPR performance characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: STBC; QO-STBC; MIMO; Hadamard; full-diversity; intersymbol interference (ISI)-free; massive MIMO (mMIMO); PAPR STBC; QO-STBC; MIMO; Hadamard; full-diversity; intersymbol interference (ISI)-free; massive MIMO (mMIMO); PAPR

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Anoh, K.; Okorafor, G.; Adebisi, B.; Alabdullah, A.; Jones, S.; Abd-Alhameed, R. Full-Diversity QO-STBC Technique for Large-Antenna MIMO Systems . Electronics 2017, 6, 37.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top