- Signal peptides, which stimulate matrix protein production (such as collagen and elastin) and cell growth, amongst other cell metabolic functions (e.g., Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7, Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4);
- Carrier peptides, which may act as transportation facilitators for important substances or trace elements inside the cell, such as copper and magnesium (e.g., Tripeptide-1, GHK-Cu);
- Neurotransmitter-inhibiting peptides, which may target expression wrinkles by inhibiting acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction by acting on distinct molecular targets (e.g., Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Acetyl Octapeptide-3);
- Enzyme-inhibiting peptides, which may reduce the activity of enzymes that participate in skin aging (e.g., soybean peptides which inhibit serine proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases, (MMPs), and silk peptides, which inhibit tyrosinase).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Data Collection
2.2. Data Analysis
2.3. Peptides’ Prevalence and Combinations
2.4. Top Peptides
2.5. Peptides’ Sources
2.6. Peptides’ Mechanisms of Action and Scientific Evidence
3.1. Peptides’ Prevalence and Combinations
3.2. Top Peptides
3.3. Peptides Sources
3.4. Peptides’ Mechanisms of Action and Scientific Evidence
Conflicts of Interest
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|Category||Peptide (INCI)||Commercial Name||Source||Biomolecular Inspiration||Molecular Target||Mechanism of Action||Effect||Type of Study||Reference|
|Signal||Palmitoyl Oligopeptide||Matrixyl 3000 ® with Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 (Sederma), Biopeptide-CL™, Biopeptide-EL™ *||Synthesis||Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1: fragment of type I collagen Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12: fragment of elastin||Acting on TGF to stimulate fibrillogenesis||Stimulation of collagen synthesis and decrease in elastin synthesis.||Anti-wrinkle.||In vitro study **||[8,15,16]|
|Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7||Eyeliss™ with Dipeptide-2 (Sederma), Matrixyl 3000™ with Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 (Sederma)||Synthesis||Fragment of immunoglobulin G||Unknown||Reduction in IL-6 secretion by keratinocytes, with subsequent inhibition of the inflammatory process resulting in the degradation of the extracellular matrix.||Skin elasticity, firmness and softness increase.||Randomized-controlled study **||[15,17]|
|Cyclotetrapeptide-24 Aminocyclohexane Carboxylate||RonaCare® Cyclopeptide-5 (Merck KGaA)||Unknown||Ligand of the integrin in the RGD site||Unknown||Inhibition from the activity of MMPs, such as collagenase and elastase. Stimulation from the stability of the extracellular matrix by the activation of fibrilin, laminin and collagen.||Skin elasticity and firmness improvement. Wrinkle reduction.||Randomized-controlled study **|||
|Peptide PP||Collagen Peptide-PP (CNA Biotech)||Biotechnology||Hydrolyzed extensin from oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|||
|Peptide PCP||Collagen Peptide-PCP (CNA Biotech)||Biotechnology||Peptide PP + peptide CP, hydrolyzed extensin from carrot, Daucus carota||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|||
|Tripeptide-10 Citrulline||Decorinyl® (Lipotec), Trylagen® with Tripeptide-1 (Lipotec)||Biotechnology||Similar to the decorin portion binding to collagen fibrils||Collagen fibers||Regulation from collagen fibrillogenesis and remodeling in fiber organization by binding to the collagen protein core.||Skin softness and firmness increase.||Ex vivo study **|||
|Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1||Haloxyl™ with Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 (Sederms), Matrixyl 3000™ with Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 (Sederma)||Unknown||Fragment of type I collagen||Suggested to act on TGF.||Synthesis in collagen and glycosaminoglycans via signaling.|
Activity similar to retinoic acid.
|Skin texture improvement and wrinkle reduction, particularly on the forehead and the crow’s feet.||Randomized, controlled study **||[9,15,20]|
|Palmitoyl Tripeptide-38||Matrixyl synthe’6™ (Sederma), Volulip™ (Sederma)||Unknown||KMK tripeptide derivative found naturally in collagen VI and laminins||Unknown||Stimulation of the synthesis of extracellular matrix compounds, namely hyaluronic acid, collagen I, III and IV, laminins and|
|Wrinkle reduction, particularly on the forehead and the crow’s feet.||Randomized, controlled study **|||
|Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4||Pal-KTTKS (u Reb Technology), SpecPed® PP4P (Spec-Chem Industry Inc.)||Synthesis||Similar to type I collagen precursor||Unknown||Stimulation from elastin, fibronectin, glycosaminoglycans as well as types I, III and IV collagen synthesis.||Skin roughness and fine wrinkle reduction.||Randomized double-blind controlled study||[8,9,22]|
|Acetyl Tetrapeptide-11||Syniorage™ (BASF)||Synthesis||Unknown||Unknown||Stimulation of syndecan-1 synthesis, involved in the cohesion between cells and type XVII collagen; as well as keratinocyte growth.||Skin firmness and thickness increase.||Randomized, controlled study **||[8,9,23]|
|Acetyl Tetrapeptide-9||Dermican™ (BASF)||Synthesis||Unknown||Unknown||Stimulation of type I collagen and lumican synthesis, thus improving fiber organization.||Skin firmness and thickness increase.||Randomized, controlled study **||[8,9]|
|Pentapeptide-34||Peptide Q10™ Biofunctional (Ashland)||Biotechnology||Unknown||Unknown||Stimulation of coenzyme Q10 synthesis, with antioxidant action.||Cell membrane and protein preservation for skin wrinkle and roughness reduction.||Randomized, controlled study **|||
|Nicotiana benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 SH-Oligopeptide-1||plant-EGF, Epitensive™ (Lipotrue)||Biotechnology||EGF||Unknown||Stimulation of collagen, elastin and fibronectin synthesis; as well as keratinocytes and fibroblasts proliferation.||Anti-wrinkle and anti-sagging.||Randomized, controlled study **|||
|Nicotiana benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 SH-Polypeptide-5||Unknown||Biotechnology||TGF-β3||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Product label|
|Nicotiana benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 SH-Polypeptide-76||plant-TGF β2, Reneseed™ (Lipotrue)||Biotechnology||TGF-β2 (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)) from biotechnology||Unknown||Stimulation of type I collagen and fibronectin synthesis; as well as fibroblast proliferation.||Wrinkle reduction.||Randomized, controlled study **||[25,26]|
|Nicotiana benthamiana SH-Polypeptide-45||MULTIEFFECT 3R (Plantaderma)||Biotechnology||GM-CSF||Unknown||Stimulation of type I collagen and total protein synthesis as well as the proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts.||Skin repair and rejuvenation.||Unknown|||
|Nicotiana benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 SH-Polypeptide-9||NEX-VEGF121 (NEXGEN Biotechnologies, Inc.)||Biotechnology||VEGF||Unknown||Hair growth stimulation by promoting nutrient delivery to the hair follicle. Angiogenesis induction.||Unknown||Unknown|||
|Nicotiana benthamiana SH-Polypeptide-7||MULTIEFFECT R+D (Plantaderma)||Biotechnology||HGH||Unknown||Reduction in fibroblast proliferation and melanin synthesis.||Skin whitening, rejuvenation, repair and thickening.||Unknown|||
|Nicotiana benthamiana SH-Oligopeptide-2||Anargy™ with Nicotiana Benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 sh-Polypeptide-9 and Nicotiana Benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 sh-Polypeptide-86 (Lipotrue)||Biotechnology||IGF-1||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||-|
|Nicotiana benthamiana Hexapeptide-40 SH-Polypeptide 2||Pureoxin (Lipotrue)||Biotechnology||TRX||Unknown||Antioxidant.||Complexion improvement and wrinkle reduction.||In vitro study **|||
|Nicotiana benthamiana SH-Polypeptide-15||Unknown||Biotechnology||TIMP-2||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Product label|
|Tripeptide-32||Chronolux™ (Ashland)||Unknown||Unknown||Gene PER1 or CLOCK||Circadian rhythm regulation and stimulation of synthesis of cell repair proteins.||Wrinkles and fine lines reduction.||Unknown|||
|Trifluoroacetyl Tripeptide-2||Progeline™ (Lucas Meyer Cosmetics)||Synthesis||Unknown||Elastase MMP||Reduction in elastase MMP and progerin synthesis. Proteoglycan synthesis stimulation and collagen contraction.||Skin roughness and wrinkles reduction, particularly on the forehead and crow’s feet.||Ex vivo study **||[8,9]|
|Hexapeptide-10||Serilesine® (Lipotec)||Synthesis||Alpha chain sequence of laminin-I||Unknown||Increase in cell proliferation and V-laminin synthesis stimulation.||Dermis redensification for skin elasticity and firmness improvement.||Randomized, controlled study **||[15,32]|
|Neurotransmitter-inhibiting||Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 or Acetyl hexapeptide-3||Argireline® (Lipotec)||Synthesis||Mimics SNAP-25 N-terminal||Soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) complex||Reduction in acetylcholine release by inhibition of the SNARE complex.||Inhibition of muscle contraction for and anti-wrinkle action.||Randomized, controlled study||[8,33]|
|Acetyl Dipeptide-1 Cetyl Ester||Calmosensine™ (Sederma)||Synthesis||Unknown||Unknown||Stimulation of met-enkephalin release, opioid by promotion of the expression from the gene|
|Reduction in skin irritation due to heat, stinging upon contact with chemical irritants and mechanical stress. Wrinkle and expression line prevention due to its muscle relaxation properties.||Randomized, controlled study|||
|Acetyl Tetrapeptide-5||EYESERYL®, SpecKare™ Eye S100 with Dipeptide-2 (Lipotec)||Unknown||Unknown||ACE||ACE inhibition.||Eye contour oedema reduction||Randomized, controlled study **||[15,34]|
|Dipeptide-2||SpecKare™ Eye S100 with Acetyl Tetrapeptide-5 (Spec-Chem Industry Inc.), Eyeliss™ with Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 (Sederma)||Synthesis||Unknown||ACE||ACE inhibition.||Lymphatic drainage of the eye contour and telangiectasias reduction.||Randomized, controlled study **||[15,34]|
|Acetyl Octapeptide-3||SNAP-8™ (Lipotec)||Synthesis||Elongation of acetyl hexapeptide-8||Soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) complex||Reduction in acetylcholine release by inhibition of the SNARE complex.||Inhibition of muscle contraction for and anti-wrinkle action||Randomized, controlled study **||[15,35]|
|Carrier||Tripeptide-1||Aldenine® (Lipotec), Trylagen® with Tripeptide-10 Citrulline (Lipotec)||Synthesis||Present on blood||Copper||Copper transport for collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans synthesis increase.||Antioxidant action, dermis redensification and skin repair.||Unknown|||
|Diaminopropionoyl Tripeptide-33||PREVENTHELIA® (Lipotec)||Synthesis||Obtained from a peptide library||4-hydroxynenal||Chelation from of 4-hydroxynenal resulting from lipid peroxidation.||Prevention from cell damage due to ROS.||In vitro study **|||
|Tripeptide-9 Citrulline||dGLYAGE® (Lipotec)||Synthesis||Unknown||Copper||Chelation from copper and prevention of ROS formation.||Prevention from cell damage due to ROS.||In vitro study **|||
|Unknown||Nicotiana benthamiana sh-polypeptide-15 hexapeptide-40||Unknown||Biotechnology||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||-|
|Pimpinella anisum extract (apiacea peptides)||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Increase in the levels of enzymes which are essential to break down and remove damaged cells.||Promotion of skin renewal and strengthening from connective tissue. Improvement microcirculation and skin density radiance.||Unknown|||
|Pentapeptide-28||Chondricare™ IS biofunctional (Ashland)||Synthesis||Unknown||Aconitase||Increase in the enzymatic activity of aconitase and stimulates cell vitality||Increase in cell energy production.||Unknown|||
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