# Hardware/Software Solution for Low Power Evaluation of Tsunami Danger

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{7}-node computation grid at a rate of actual tsunami propagation (1 h of the processing time for a 1 h tsunami travel time).

## 2. Results

#### 2.1. Required Resources for Tsunami Scenarios Computation—Evaluation

#### 2.2. Numerical Experiment Setup

#### 2.3. Hardware Solution Proposed

#### 2.4. Numerical Results

## 3. Discussion

## 4. Materials and Methods

^{n}

_{ij}, u

^{n}

_{ij}, and v

^{n}

_{ij}are the gridded variables which correspond to the H, u, and v functions in differential system (1), respectively; the parameters τ, Δx, and Δy are the time step and spatial steps of the computational grid. In order to account the sphericity of the Earth, we used a decreasing grid step with respect to the longitude for larger values of the latitude. The notation ${F}_{ij}^{n}$ represents variables at time layer n, ${\stackrel{\u2322}{F}}_{ij}^{n+1}$ represents intermediate values, and ${F}_{ij}^{n+1}$ corresponds to the variables at time layer n + 1.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

PC | personal computer |

FPGA | field-programmable gate array |

NOAA | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |

HLS | high-level synthesis |

PDE | partial differential equation |

MOST | Method of Splitting Tsunami |

PE | processor element |

SB RAS | Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences |

CPU | central processing unit |

DMA | direct memory access |

AMBA | advanced microcontroller bus architecture |

PCIe | Peripheral Component Interconnect Express |

TSMC | Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company |

DDR3 | double data rate 3 memory |

SODIMM | small outline dual in-line memory module |

ZCU106 | Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC ZCU106 Evaluation Kit Board |

SoC | system-on-a-chip |

FIFO | first-in-first-out (type of memory organization) |

OpenMP | open multi-processing (programming standard) |

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**Figure 1.**Geography and bathymetry of the area under consideration. The tsunami source location is indicated as S1.

**Figure 2.**Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the initial sea surface displacement at an elliptic tsunami source.

**Figure 5.**Pseudo-3D visualization of the water surface 2500 s after the calculation started. Yellow dots A and B delineate the segments of the coastline along which a more detailed distribution of the tsunami heights is shown.

**Figure 6.**Distribution of the maximum tsunami heights in the fragment of the computational domain, located closer to the tsunami source. The left part of the figure shows the color legend of the corresponding wave heights.

**Figure 7.**Graph of the distribution of the maximum heights in cm along the fragment of the coastline between points A and B (Figure 5). Along the horizontal axis, the difference (in spatial steps) between the projections to the meridian of the current point and point A is shown.

Core i9-9900K | VC709 | ZCU106 | |
---|---|---|---|

Technology used | 14 nm Intel | 28 nm TSMC | 16 nm TSMC |

Number of streams | 8 | 8 | 4 |

Frequency | 3600 MHz | 250 MHz | 400 MHz |

Entire system power consumption | 141.2 W | 104.2 W | 41.1 W |

Processor power consumption | 66.7 W | 19.5 W | 13.45 W |

Time for one iteration | 46 ms | 3.9 ms | 4.92 ms |

Energy consumption per iteration (system) | 6495 mJ | 406 mJ | 202 mJ |

Energy consumption per iteration (processor) | 3068 mJ | 76 mJ | 66 mJ |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lavrentiev, M.; Lysakov, K.; Marchuk, A.; Oblaukhov, K.; Shadrin, M.
Hardware/Software Solution for Low Power Evaluation of Tsunami Danger. *J. Low Power Electron. Appl.* **2022**, *12*, 6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea12010006

**AMA Style**

Lavrentiev M, Lysakov K, Marchuk A, Oblaukhov K, Shadrin M.
Hardware/Software Solution for Low Power Evaluation of Tsunami Danger. *Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications*. 2022; 12(1):6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea12010006

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lavrentiev, Mikhail, Konstantin Lysakov, Andrey Marchuk, Konstantin Oblaukhov, and Mikhail Shadrin.
2022. "Hardware/Software Solution for Low Power Evaluation of Tsunami Danger" *Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications* 12, no. 1: 6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea12010006