Next Article in Journal
Is It Time to Rethink Our Weight Loss Paradigms?
Next Article in Special Issue
Epigenetic Changes in Host Ribosomal DNA Promoter Induced by an Asymptomatic Plant Virus Infection
Previous Article in Journal
Estrogen Signaling Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Associated Autophagy and Senescence in Breast Cancer Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Tillage System and Cover Crop on Maize Mycorrhization and Presence of Magnaporthiopsis maydis
Open AccessArticle

Isolation and Identification of Fusarium spp., the Causal Agents of Onion (Allium cepa) Basal Rot in Northeastern Israel

1
Plant Sciences Department, Migal–Galilee Research Institute, Tarshish 2, Kiryat Shmona 11016, Israel
2
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
3
Division for Plant Pests and Diseases, Plant Protection and Inspection Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bet Dagan 50200, Israel
4
Faculty of Sciences, Tel-Hai College, Upper Galilee, Tel-Hai 12210, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9040069
Received: 8 March 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 30 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Pathogen Interaction)
Over the past decade, there have been accumulating reports from farmers and field extension personnel on the increasing incidence and spread of onion (Allium cepa) bulb basal rot in northern Israel. The disease is caused mainly by Fusarium species. Rotting onion bulbs were sampled from fields in the Golan Heights in northeastern Israel during the summers of 2017 and 2018. Tissue from the sampled onion bulbs was used for the isolation and identification of the infecting fungal species using colony and microscopic morphology characterization. Final confirmation of the pathogens was performed with PCR amplification and sequencing using fungi-specific and Fusarium species-specific primers. Four Fusarium spp. isolates were identified in onion bulbs samples collected from the contaminated field: F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, and two species less familiar as causative agents of this disease, F. acutatum and F. anthophilium. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these species subdivided into two populations, a northern group isolated from white (Riverside cv.) onion bulbs, and a southern group isolated from red (565/505 cv.) bulbs. Pathogenicity tests conducted with seedlings and bulbs under moist conditions proved that all species could cause the disease symptoms, but with different degrees of virulence. Inoculating seeds with spore suspensions of the four species, in vitro, significantly reduced seedlings’ germination rate, hypocotyl elongation, and fresh biomass. Mature onion bulbs infected with the fungal isolates produced typical rot symptoms 14 days post-inoculation, and the fungus from each infected bulb was re-isolated and identified to satisfy Koch’s postulates. The onion bulb assay also reflected the degree of sensitivity of different onion cultivars to the disease. This work is the first confirmed report of the direct and primary cause of Fusarium onion basal rot disease in northeastern Israel. These findings are a necessary step towards uncovering the mycoflora of the diseased onion plants and developing a preventive program that would reduce the disease damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungus; Fusarium acutatum; Fusarium anthophilium; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae; Fusarium proliferatum; molecular identification; morphological characteristics; pathogenicity assay; PCR detection; seed infection fungus; Fusarium acutatum; Fusarium anthophilium; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae; Fusarium proliferatum; molecular identification; morphological characteristics; pathogenicity assay; PCR detection; seed infection
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kalman, B.; Abraham, D.; Graph, S.; Perl-Treves, R.; Meller Harel, Y.; Degani, O. Isolation and Identification of Fusarium spp., the Causal Agents of Onion (Allium cepa) Basal Rot in Northeastern Israel. Biology 2020, 9, 69.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop